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___ Independent States of the World

List of all Sovereign Nations and their Capital Cities.

Since South Sudan became an independent state on 9 July 2011, there are now 195 independent sovereign states in the world (including de facto independent Taiwan). Last change was with the ending of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro in June 2006, Montenegro and Serbia came into existence as independent states.
(Palestinian territories and Taiwan are (until now) not recognized as sovereign states, Kosovo is partially recognized by 81 out of 193 United Nations member states. (Aug. 2011)

On this page you will find a list of all sovereign states with the country code and their capital cities. Click on a country name to get the country's profile, or you might want to have a closer look at a capital city with a searchable map, then use the city's link below.

The states marked with an asterisk (*) are members of the United Nations


Definition of a state:
A territory built by conquest in which one culture, one set of ideals and one set of laws have been imposed by force or threat over diverse nations by a civilian and military bureaucracy. States are ephemeral and originate and disappear with the stroke of a pen (e.g. the end of the U.S.S.R., December 25, 1991).

Another definition of an independent state you will find at the end of this page.

 
independent states of the world

Independent States


A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | Y | Z
 

A
  Country Name
Long Form Country Name
Code
Capital City
Afghanistan * Islamic State of Afghanistan AF Kabul
Albania * Republic of Albania AL Tirana
Algeria * Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria DZ Algiers
Andorra * Principality of Andorra AD Andorra la Vella
Angola * Republic of Angola AO Luanda
Antigua and Barbuda *   AG Saint John's
Argentina * Argentine Republic AR Buenos Aires
Armenia * Republic of Armenia AM Yerevan
Australia * Commonwealth of Australia AU Canberra
Austria * Republic of Austria AT Vienna
Azerbaijan * Azerbaijani Republic AZ Baku


B
  Country Name
Long Form Country Name
Code
Capital City
Bahamas, The * Commonwealth of The Bahamas BS Nassau
Bahrain * State of Bahrain BH Manama
Bangladesh * People's Republic of Bangladesh BD Dhaka
Barbados *   BB Bridgetown
Belarus * Republic of Belarus BY Minsk
Belgium * Kingdom of Belgium BE Brussels
Belize *   BZ Belmopan
Benin * Republic of Benin BJ Porto-Novo
Bhutan * Kingdom of Bhutan BT Thimphu
Bolivia * Republic of Bolivia BO La Paz (administrative)
Sucre (legisl./judiciary)
Bosnia and Herzegovina *   BA Sarajevo
Botswana * Republic of Botswana BW Gaborone
Brazil * Federative Republic of Brazil BR Brasilia
Brunei Darussalam * Negara Brunei Darussalam BN Bandar Seri Begawan
Bulgaria * Republic of Bulgaria BG Sofia
Burkina Faso * Burkina Faso BF Ouagadougou
Burma (Myanmar) * Union of Myanmar MM Yangon
(Rangoon)
Burundi * Republic of Burundi BI Bujumbura

C
  Country Name
Long Form Country Name
Code
Capital City
Cambodia * Kingdom of Cambodia KH Phnom Penh
Cameroon * Republic of Cameroon CM Yaoundé
Canada *   CA Ottawa
Cape Verde * Republic of Cape Verde CV Praia
Central African Republic * Central African Republic CF Bangui
Chad * Republic of Chad TD N'Djamena
Chile * Republic of Chile CL Santiago
China * People's Republic of China CN Beijing
Colombia * Republic of Colombia CO Bogotá
Comoros * Federal Islamic Republic
of the Comoros
KM Moroni
Congo (Brazzaville) * Republic of the Congo CG Brazzaville
Congo (Kinshasa) * Democratic Republic
of the Congo
CD Kinshasa
Costa Rica * Republic of Costa Rica CR San José
Cote d'Ivoire * Republic of Côte d'Ivoire CI Yamoussoukro
Croatia (Hrvatska) * Republic of Croatia HR Zagreb
Cuba * Republic of Cuba CU Havana (Habana)
Cyprus * Republic of Cyprus CY Nicosia
Czech Republic * Czech Republic CZ Prague

D
  Country Name
Long Form Country Name
Code
Capital City
Denmark * Kingdom of Denmark DK Copenhagen
Djibouti * Republic of Djibouti DJ Djibouti
Dominica * Commonwealth of Dominica DM Roseau
Dominican Republic * Dominican Republic DO Santo Domingo

E
  Country Name
Long Form Country Name
Code
Capital City
Ecuador * Republic of Ecuador EC Quito
Egypt * Arab Republic of Egypt EG Cairo
El Salvador * Republic of El Salvador SV San Salvador
Equatorial Guinea * Republic of Equatorial Guinea GQ Malabo
Eritrea * State of Eritrea ER Asmara
Estonia * Republic of Estonia EE Tallinn
Ethiopia * Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia ET Addis Ababa

F
  Country Name
Long Form Country Name
Code
Capital City
Fiji * Republic of the Fiji Islands FJ Suva
Finland * Republic of Finland FI Helsinki
France * French Republic FR Paris

G
  Country Name
Long Form Country Name
Code
Capital City
Gabon * Gabonese Republic GA Libreville
Gambia, The * Republic of The Gambia GM Banjul
Georgia *   GE T'bilisi
Germany * Federal Republic of Germany DE Berlin
Ghana * Republic of Ghana GH Accra
Greece * Hellenic Republic GR Athens
Grenada *   GD Saint George's
Guatemala * Republic of Guatemala GT Guatemala
Guinea * Republic of Guinea GN Conakry
Guinea-Bissau * Republic of Guinea-Bissau GW Bissau
Guyana * Co-operative
Republic of Guyana
GY Georgetown

H
  Country Name
Long Form Country Name
Code
Capital City
Haiti * Republic of Haiti HT Port-au-Prince
Holy See (Vatican City State) Holy See VA Vatican City
Honduras * Republic of Honduras HN Tegucigalpa
Hungary * Republic of Hungary HU Budapest

I
  Country Name
Long Form Country Name
Code
Capital City
Iceland * Republic of Iceland IS Reykjavik
India * Republic of India IN New Delhi
Indonesia * Republic of Indonesia ID Jakarta
Iran * Islamic Republic of Iran IR Tehran
Iraq * Republic of Iraq IQ Baghdad
Ireland *   IE Dublin (City)
Israel * State of Israel IL Jerusalem (claimed)
Italy * Italian Republic IT Rome

J
  Country Name
Long Form Country Name
Code
Capital City
Jamaica *   JM Kingston
Japan *   JP Tokyo
Jordan * Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan JO Amman

K
  Country Name
Long Form Country Name
Code
Capital City
Kazakhstan * Republic of Kazakhstan KZ Astana
Kenya * Republic of Kenya KE Nairobi
Kiribati Republic of Kiribati KI Tarawa
Korea (North) * Democratic People's Republic of Korea KP P'yongyang
Korea (South) * Republic of Korea KR Seoul
Kuwait * State of Kuwait KW Kuwait (City)
Kyrgyzstan * Kyrgyz Republic KG Bishkek

L
  Country Name
Long Form Country Name
Code
Capital City
Lao PDR * Lao People's Democratic Republic LA Vientiane
Latvia * Republic of Latvia LV Riga
Lebanon * Lebanese Republic LB Beirut
Lesotho * Kingdom of Lesotho LS Maseru
Liberia * Republic of Liberia LR Monrovia
Libya * -- LY Tripoli
Liechtenstein * Principality of Liechtenstein LI Vaduz
Lithuania * Republic of Lithuania LT Vilnius
Luxembourg * Grand Duchy of Luxembourg LU Luxembourg

M
  Country Name
Long Form Country Name
Code
Capital City
Macedonia, Rep. of * The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia MK Skopje
Madagascar * Republic of Madagascar MG Antananarivo
Malawi * Republic of Malawi MW Lilongwe
Malaysia *   MY Kuala Lumpur
Maldives * Republic of Maldives MV Male
Mali * Republic of Mali ML Bamako
Malta *   MT Valletta
Marshall Islands * Republic of the
Marshall Islands
MH Majuro
Mauritania * Islamic Republic of Mauritania MR Nouakchott
Mauritius * Republic of Mauritius MU Port Louis
Mexico * United Mexican States MX Mexico City
Micronesia * Federated States of Micronesia FM Palikir
Moldova * Republic of Moldova MD Chisinau
Monaco * Principality of Monaco MC Monaco
Mongolia *   MN Ulaanbaatar
Montenegro Republic of Montenegro ME Podgorica
Morocco * Kingdom of Morocco MA Rabat
Mozambique * Republic of Mozambique MZ Maputo
Myanmar * Union of Myanmar MM Naypyidaw (formerlyYangon)

N
  Country Name
Long Form Country Name
Code
Capital City
Namibia * Republic of Namibia NA Windhoek
Nauru Republic of Nauru NR Yaren District
(no Capital City)
Nepal * Kingdom of Nepal NP Kathmandu
Netherlands * Kingdom of the Netherlands NL Amsterdam
The Hague (seat of gov't)
New Zealand *   NZ Wellington
Nicaragua * Republic of Nicaragua NI Managua
Niger * Republic of Niger NE Niamey
Nigeria * Federal Republic of Nigeria NG Abuja
Norway * Kingdom of Norway NO Oslo

O
  Country Name
Long Form Country Name
Code
Capital City
Oman * Sultanate of Oman OM Muscat

P
  Country Name
Long Form Country Name
Code
Capital City
Pakistan * Islamic Republic of Pakistan PK Islamabad
Palau * Republic of Palau PW Ngerulmud
Palestinian territories Gaza Strip and West Bank -- Jerusalem (claimed)
Panama * Republic of Panama PA Panama (City)
Papua New Guinea * Independent State of Papua New Guinea PG Port Moresby
Paraguay * Republic of Paraguay PY Asunción
Peru * Republic of Peru PE Lima
Philippines * Republic of the Philippines PH Manila
Poland * Republic of Poland PL Warsaw
Portugal * Portuguese Republic PT Lisbon

Q
  Country Name
Long Form Country Name
Code
Capital City
Qatar * State of Qatar QA Doha (Al-Dawhah)

R
  Country Name
Long Form Country Name
Code
Capital City
Romania *   RO Bucharest
Russia * Russian Federation RU Moscow
Rwanda * Rwandese Republic RW Kigali

S
  Country Name
Long Form Country Name
Code
Capital City
Saint Kitts and Nevis * Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis KN Basseterre
Saint Lucia *   LC Castries
Saint Vincent and Grenadines *   VC Kingstown
Samoa * Independent State of Samoa WS Apia
San Marino * Republic of San Marino SM San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe * Democratic Republic of
Sao Tome and Principe
ST São Tomé
Saudi Arabia * Kingdom of Saudi Arabia SA Riyadh
Senegal * Republic of Senegal SN Dakar
Serbia * Republic of Serbia CS Belgrade
Seychelles * Republic of Seychelles SC Victoria
Sierra Leone * Republic of Sierra Leone SL Freetown
Singapore * Republic of Singapore SG Singapore
Slovakia * Slovak Republic SK Bratislava
Slovenia * Republic of Slovenia SI Ljubljana
Solomon Islands *   SB Honiara
Somalia *   SO Mogadishu
South Africa * Republic of South Africa ZA Pretoria (administrative)
Cape Town (legislative)
Bloemfontein (judiciary)
South Sudan Republic of South Sudan SS Juba
Spain * Kingdom of Spain ES Madrid
Sri Lanka * Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka LK Sri Jayewardenepura-Kotte; see: Colombo
Sudan * Republic of the Sudan SD Khartoum
Suriname * Republic of Suriname SR Paramaribo
Swaziland * Kingdom of Swaziland SZ Mbabane (administrative)
Lobamba (legislative)
Sweden * Kingdom of Sweden SE Stockholm
Switzerland * Swiss Confederation CH Bern
Syria * Syrian Arab Republic SY Damascus

T
  Country Name
Long Form Country Name
Code
Capital City
Taiwan Taiwan, Republic of China TW Taipei
Tajikistan * Republic of Tajikistan TJ Dushanbe
Tanzania * United Republic of Tanzania TZ Dar es Salaam
Dodoma (legislative)
Thailand * Kingdom of Thailand TH Bangkok
Tibet (Xizang - Under Sovereignty of China) - Lhasa
Timor-Leste   TL Dili
Togo * Togolese Republic TG Lomé
Tonga Kingdom of Tonga TO Nuku'alofa
Trinidad and Tobago * Republic of Trinidad and Tobago TT Port-of-Spain
Tunisia * Republic of Tunisia TN Tunis
Turkey * Republic of Turkey TR Ankara
Turkmenistan *   TM Ashgabat
Tuvalu   TV Funafuti

U
  Country Name
Long Form Country Name
Code
Capital City
Uganda * Republic of Uganda UG Kampala
Ukraine *   UA Kiev
United Arab Emirates * United Arab Emirates AE Abu Dhabi
United Kingdom * United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland UK London
United States * United States of America US Washington D.C.
Uruguay * Oriental Republic of Uruguay UY Montevideo
Uzbekistan * Republic of Uzbekistan UZ Tashkent

V
  Country Name
Long Form Country Name
Code
Capital City
Vanuatu * Republic of Vanuatu VU Port-Vila
Venezuela * Republic of Venezuela VE Caracas
Viet Nam * Socialist Republic of Vietnam VN Hanoi

Y
  Country Name
Long Form Country Name
Code
Capital City
Yemen * Republic of Yemen YE Sanaa

Z
  Country Name
Long Form Country Name
Code
Capital City
Zambia * Republic of Zambia ZM Lusaka
Zimbabwe * Republic of Zimbabwe ZW Harare
 (*) Member states of the United Nations

Definition of an independent state.

A specialized type of political organization characterized by a full-time, specialized, professional work force of tax-collectors, soldiers, policemen, bureaucrats and the like that exercises supreme political authority over a defined territory with a permanent population, independent from any enduring external political control and possessing a local predominance of coercive power (always supplemented with moral and remunerative incentives as well) great enough to maintain general obedience to its laws or commands within its territorial borders.

The first known states were created in ancient times in Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, China, Mexico and Peru, but it is only in relatively modern times that states have almost completely displaced alternative "stateless" forms of political organization of societies all over the planet. (Roving bands of hunter-gatherers and even fairly sizable and complex tribal societies based on herding or agriculture have existed without any full-time specialized state organization, and these "stateless" forms of political organization have in fact prevailed for all of the prehistory and much of the history of the human species.)

Sources:
A Glossary of Political Economy Terms
by Dr. Paul M. Johnson: Dept. of Political Science, Auburn University

Nations and States - What's the difference?
Article by James A. Paul

 
 Related Categories:
Sovereign states, areas and dependent countries of the world
List of political entities.
Overseas Territories and Dependent Areas
List of the overseas territories, dependent areas, and disputed territories.
Countries by Gross National Income
(GNI per capita PPP in $ and year)
International Country Codes
List of two letter code (ISO alpha-2) and the three letter code (ISO alpha-3) as well as the FIPS 10-4 code for countries, dependencies, and other areas.
Capitals and Cities of the World
Gateway to official sites of famous cities and capitals.

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Actually, there are more than five colors,

Baron de Coubertin would have loved to use them all.

Why is it, that Gay and Lesbian people still are victims of persecution, harassment, and assaults occasioning actual bodily harm or worse?
Our world would be much poorer and colder without the creativity and ingenuity of the colorful LGBT* culture.
So, get up, stand up, and don't let it happen again and again and again.

Nature made sure, that all men are able to love each other without distinction of gender. This ability empowers humans to care for and to help each other. Natures gift simply secures the survival of the species.
But in some societies this natural law has been neglected by religions, governments and other interest groups in favour for better controllable straight-laced communities.

But if you know what life is worth, You will look for yours on earth
(lyrics from the song Get Up, Stand Up)
Bob Marley



* LGBT - acronym for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender

Declaration of Human Rights

Article I
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Article 2
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.