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___ Libya (ليبيا)

A virtual guide to Libya, a country in North Africa's Maghreb region. 90% of the country is covered by the Libyan desert (part of he Sahara) where agriculture and therfore live is possible only in a few scattered oases. Libya's main population centers are spread along the more fertile strip at the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The fourth largest country in Africa is about the size of Spain, Portugal, France, Germany and the UK combined.

riders in Sahara
Sahara desert © GPCT Libya


Country Profile

Libya Flag of 1951
Kingdom of Libya Flag in use between 1951-69, now used by the Libyans as the flag of the revolution.
Libya Flag
Former Flag of Libya
where in Africa is Libya

Official Name:
Formerly: Al Jumahiriyah al Arabiyah al Libiyah ash Shabiyah al Ishtirakiyah al Uzma,
Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
short form: Lībiyā
int'l long form: none
int'l short form: Libya

ISO Country Code: ly

Local Time = UTC +2h
Actual Time: Tue-Mar-3  05:06

Country Calling Code: +218

Capital City: Tripoli (pop. est. 1.68 million)

Other Cities: Benghazi (pop. est. 640 000)

Provisional government.
The National Transitional Council of Libya was formed by anti-Gaddafi forces to represent Libya in the 2011 Libyan uprising.

Independence: 24 December 1951 (from UN trusteeship).
Revolution: 1 September 1969.
Constitution: 11 December 1969, amended 2 March 1977--established popular congresses and people's committees.

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Tunisia.
Area: 1,759,540 km² (679,362 sq. mi., more than three times the size of France)
Terrain: Mediterranean coastline, highlands and deserts (90% of Libya) in interior.

Climate: Mediterranean along the coast; dry and extreme hot in desert interior.

Nationality: Libyan(s).
Population: 6.4 million (includes 0.6 million non-nationals of sub-Saharan Africans living in Libya).
Ethnic groups: Berber and Arab 97%; Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians.
Religion: Sunni Muslim 97%.
Languages: Arabic is the primary language. English, French, and Italian are understood in major cities.
Literacy: 82.6%.

Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas, gypsum.

Agriculture products: Wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus, vegetables, peanuts, soybeans; cattle.

Industries: Petroleum, iron and steel, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement.

Currency: Libyan Dinar (LYD)

Source: GPCT Libya and others.

Libya in Figures
Libya key statistical data. 

Since he took power in a 1969 military coup, Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI has espoused his own political system - a combination of socialism and Islam - which he calls the Third International Theory. Viewing himself as a revolutionary leader, he used oil funds during the 1970s and 1980s to promote his ideology outside Libya, even supporting subversives and terrorists abroad to hasten the end of Marxism and capitalism. Libyan military adventures failed, e.g., the prolonged foray of Libyan troops into the Aozou Strip in northern Chad was finally repulsed in 1987. Libyan support for terrorism decreased after UN sanctions were imposed in 1992. Those sanctions were suspended in April 1999.
(Source: CIA - The World Factbook)

Libya is a member state of the League of Arab States

border countries: Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Niger, Sudan, and Tunisia, it shares maritime borders with Greece, Italy, and Malta.

Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

Official Sites of Libya

Al Gathafi
Official Site of Muammar Gadafi.

General People's Committee
Libya's Cabinet (in Arabic).

The People's Committee of Foreign Affairs
Official website of the committee (in Arabic).

Libya in Figures
Libya key statistical data.

Diplomatic Missions
Libyan Embassy U.S.
Libyan Embassy Washington D.C., USA.
Libyan Embassy Canada
Libyan Embassy in Ottawa, Canada.


Map of Libya
Political Map of Libya.
Administrative Map of Libya
Map showing the administrative divisions (districts) of Libya.

Google Earth Google Earth Libya
Searchable map and satellite view of Libya.
Google Earth Google Earth Tripoli
Searchable map and satellite view of Libya's capital city.
Google Earth Google Earth Benghazi
Searchable map and satellite view of Libya's second largest city.
Google Earth Google Earth Sahara
Satellite view of irrigation in Al Khufrah Oasis in the Libyan Sahara.

Map of Northern Africa and the Middle East
Political Map of of North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East.
Political Map of Africa
All 54 countries of Africa.
Map of Africa
A Relief Map of Africa.

90% of the country is desert land. © GPCT Libya


News Agency
Jamahiria News Agency (Jana)
Libya's Official News Provider

Libya news in Arabic
Al Fajr al Jadeed
One of the main dailies in Libya.
Al Jamahiria
Daily newspaper.
Al Shames
Libyan daily (in Arabic and partly in French)

Libya: News and Views
Current News from Libya.

Al Jazeera

Libyan Jamahiriyah Broadcasting Corporation.


Arts & Culture

Libya: Libyan Arts, Music and Literature
Stories, Books, Poems, Photography, Paintings, Music. (English and Arabic).

The Libyan Cartoon Gallery
A selection from The Work of the Gifted Libyan Artist Mohamed Zwawi.

Dedicated to Libyan Culture.

The desert is not silent
A virtual art gallery devoted to art lover's, Libyan arts and artists.

Libda Cafe
Libya from a rebel view (in Arabic - Google translation into English).

National Library of Libya
(in Arabic)


Business & Economy

Central Bank of Libya
The monetary authority in Libya.
Directory Of Libyan Companies.

The .ly Domain Registry
The official international registry for the top level domain of Libya.

Libyan Yellow Pages
Part of Network.

Afriqiyah Airways
Tripoli based airline which operated domestic services between Tripoli and Benghazi and international scheduled services to countries in Europe, Africa, Asia and the Middle East (site is down for maintenance).
Libyan Arab Airlines
Libyan Airways, the national flag carrier airline of Libya is based in Tripoli (temporarily unavailable).

Destination Libya - Travel and Tour Guides

Discover Libya with its antique vestiges and cultural heritage like Oea ( Tripoli ), Sebratha, Leptis Magna, Shahat (Gorina), Tolmitha (Ptolemias), Sussa (Apolonia), Tukra and Benghazi (Berink), its landscapes like the green mountain series, the Mediterranean beaches and sea, and the Sahara desert.
Find accommodation, hotels, attractions, festivals, events, tourist boards, tours and much more by following the links below.

General People's committee of Tourism
The official tourism portal of Libya.

Discover Libya
Tourism information about Libya by Libya's Broadcasting Corporation.

UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Libya:
Archaeological Site of Leptis Magna
Leptis Magna was one of the most beautiful cities of the Roman Empire, with imposing public monuments, harbour, market-place, storehouses, shops and residential districts.

Archaeological Site of Cyrene
Cyrene, an ancient Greek colony, was one of the principal cities in the Hellenic world. It was Romanized and remained a great capital until the earthquake of 365.

Archaeological Site of Sabratha
was the westernmost of the "three cities" of Tripolis, a Phoenician trading-post that served as an outlet for the products of the African hinterland, Sabratha was part of the short-lived Numidian Kingdom of Masinissa (Masinissa, first King of Numidia, c. 240 or 238 BC - c. 148 BC).

Rock-Art Sites of Tadrart Acacus
Tadrart Acacus has thousands of cave paintings dating from 12,000 BC to AD 100.

Travel and Tour Consumer Information

Leptis Magna
Leptis Magna © GPCT


Al-Fateh University
Site of the Faculty of Engineering, Tripoli (in Arabic; provisional site).
Garyounis University
Founded in Benghazi in 1955 under the name of the Libyan University (site is offline).
The Green Book Studies Center
Multi Language Homepage related to Libya and Mu`ammar al-Qadhafi's revolutionary Green Book (no longer online).

National Center for Research and Scientific Studies
Libyan Scientific Organization established in 1995, Tripoli (site is not online).

Environment & Nature

The Great Man Made River Project
(Under Updating) Official website of the GMMR authority, Libya's water supply using the world's largest underground network of pipes, well-fed of fossil water that has remained in an aquifer under the Sahara desert.


Chronology of Libyan History
by Miftah Shamali.

History of Libya
Wikipedia: History of Libya.

Leptis Magna relief
Relief at Leptis Magna © GPCT


araboo: Libya
Search engine for the Arab world.

The Country and People of Libya
A page of comprehensive and categorised listing of sites in and about Libya.

Libyan Yellow Pages
Part Of Network.

Additional Information about Libya

BBC News Country Profile: Libya

Open Directory Project: Libya

Wikipedia: Libya

The World Factbook -- Libya
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Actually, there are more than five colors,

Baron de Coubertin would have loved to use them all.

Why is it, that Gay and Lesbian people still are victims of persecution, harassment, and assaults occasioning actual bodily harm or worse?
Our world would be much poorer and colder without the creativity and ingenuity of the colorful LGBT* culture.
So, get up, stand up, and don't let it happen again and again and again.

Nature made sure, that all men are able to love each other without distinction of gender. This ability empowers humans to care for and to help each other. Natures gift simply secures the survival of the species.
But in some societies this natural law has been neglected by religions, governments and other interest groups in favour for better controllable straight-laced communities.

But if you know what life is worth, You will look for yours on earth
(lyrics from the song Get Up, Stand Up)
Bob Marley

* LGBT - acronym for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender

Declaration of Human Rights

Article I
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Article 2
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.