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Destination Nicaragua, a virtual travel guide to this Central American country. Here you will find comprehensive information about Nicaragua in its diversity: geography, economy, science, people, culture, environment, government and history.
You will have access to newspapers from Nicaragua and you will find travel and tourism information.

Cathedral of León Nicaragua
Cathedral of León © INTUR

Republic of Nicaragua | Republica de Nicaragua

Country Profile

Nicaragua Flag
Flag of Nicaragua

Nicaragua is the largest country in Central America. Settled as a colony of Spain in the 1520s, Nicaragua gained its independence in 1821.
Violent opposition to governmental manipulation and corruption spread to all classes by 1978 and resulted in a short-lived civil war that brought the Marxist Sandinista guerrillas to power in 1979. Nicaraguan aid to leftist rebels in El Salvador caused the US to sponsor anti-Sandinista contra guerrillas through much of the 1980s. Free elections in 1990 and again in 1996 saw the Sandinistas defeated. The country has slowly rebuilt its economy during the 1990s, but was hard hit by Hurricane Mitch in 1998.

border countries: Costa Rica, Honduras

related countries: Spain, United Kingdom

other Central American countries: Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala, Panama
Where in Central America is Nicaragua?

Official Name:
Republica de Nicaragua
short form: Nicaragua
int'l long form: Republic of Nicaragua

ISO Country Code: ni
Actual Time: Sun-Apr-30  12:46
Local Time = UTC -6h

Country Calling Code: +505

Capital City: Managua (pop. 1 million)

Other Cities: Granada, León, Jinotega, Matagalpa, Chinandega, Masaya.

Type: Republic.
Independence: 1821 (from Spain).
Constitution: The 1987 Sandinista-era Constitution was changed in 1995 to provide for a more even distribution of power among the four branches of government and again in 2000 to increase the Supreme Court and the Controller General's Office and to make changes to the electoral laws.

Location: Central America
Area: 130,370 kmĀ² (50,336 sq. mi.)
Terrain: Extensive Atlantic coastal plains rising to central interior mountains; narrow Pacific coastal plain interrupted by volcanoes.

Climate: Tropical in lowlands; cooler in highlands.

Nationality: Nicaraguan(s)
Population: 5.4 million.
Ethnic groups: Mestizo (mixed European and indigenous) 69%, white 17%, black (Jamaican origin) 9%, indigenous 5%.
Religion: Predominantly Roman Catholic, with rapidly growing percentage of Evangelical Protestants.
Languages: Spanish (official), English and indigenous languages on Caribbean coast.
Literacy: 75%

Natural resources: Arable land, livestock, fisheries, gold, timber.
Agriculture products: Coffee, bananas, sugarcane, cotton, rice, corn, tobacco, sesame, soya, beans; beef, veal, pork, poultry, dairy products.
Industries: Food processing, chemicals, machinery and metal products, textiles, clothing, petroleum refining and distribution, beverages, footwear, wood.

Exports partners: USA 35.9%, El Salvador 17.2%, Costa Rica 8.1%, Honduras 7.3%, Mexico 4.6%, Guatemala 4.3% (2003)

Imports partners: USA 24.9%, Venezuela 9.7%, Costa Rica 9%, Mexico 8.4%, Guatemala 7.3%, El Salvador 4.9%, Japan 4.3% (2003)

Currency: Cordoba Oro (NIO)

Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

Official Sites of Nicaragua

Presidencia de la Republica de Nicaraguaa
The Presidency of Nicaragua (in Spanish).

Asamblea Nacional de Nicaragua
The National Assembly of Nicaragua.

Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores
Ministry of External Relations (in Spanish).

Permanent Mission of Nicaragua to the UN
Consulate of Nicaragua
Consulates from Nicaragua around the World.


Map of Nicaragua
Political Map of Nicaragua.
Administrative Map of Nicaragua
Map of Nicaragua showing NIcaragua's administrative divisions.
Google Earth Google Earth Nicaragua
Searchable map and satellite view of Nicaragua.
Google Earth Google Earth Managua
Searchable map and satellite view of Nicaragua's capital city.

Map of Central America and the Caribbean
Reference Map of Central America and the Caribbean. 


Bolsa de Noticias
National news (in Spanish).
El Nuevo Diario
Noticias de Nicaragua.
La Prensa
Regional and international news (in Spanish).
Trinchera de la Noticia
Regional news.
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Arts & Culture

Ernesto Cardenal
Ernesto Cardenal is a major poet of the Spanish language and a spokesman for justice and self-determination in Latin America.
Rubén Darío
The Nicaraguan poet who changed the course of Spanish poetry and brought it into the mainstream of twentieth-century.
Museo Archivo Rubén Darío
The Rubén Darío museum (in Spanish).
Casa de los Tres Mundos
The Casa de los Tres Mundos Foundation is a catalyst for cultural exchange between Central America and the rest of the world.
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Business & Economy

APENN - Nicaraguan Association of Producers and Product Exporters
Banco Central de Nicaragua
The Central Bank of Nicaragua.
Bolsa de Valores de Nicaragua
Nicaragua's Stock Exchange.

Destination Nicaragua - Travel and Tour Guides

Discover Nicaragua: Managua, Lake of Managua, Granada, León, Jinotega, Matagalpa, Chinandega, Masaya, Carazo, Bluefields, Corn Island, San Juan, Miskito Cays, Puerto Cabezas,Raan, Raas.
Accommodation, hotels, attractions, festivals, events, tourist boards, biking, hiking, climbing, cruising, diving, tours and much more.

Nicaragua, a country with a heart
Country and tourist information by the Nicaraguan Institute of Tourism (INTUR).

Nicaragua's Best Guide
Country and tourist information on Nicaragua.

Nicaragua Online
The gateway to the land of lakes and volcanos.

Travel and Tour Consumer Information


Universidad Centroamericana de Managua
Founded 1960 (in Spanish).
Universidad Nacional Agraria
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragua
The Independent National University of Nicaragua-Leon (UNAN-Leon) is the oldest of Nicaragua and the last university founded on Latin America by the Spaniards, City of Leon.
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragua
Managua Founded 1982 (in Spanish).
Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería

Environment & Nature

Government Agencies
Ministerio del Ambiente y los Recursos Naturales de Nicaragua | MARENA
Official website of the Ministry for Evirnoment and Natural Resouces (in Spanish)
Proyecto Comanejo de Areas Protegidas de Nicaragua
Site with ecoturístic information on the protected areas of the SINAP (in Spanish).
Sistema Nacional de Información Ambiental de Nicaragua - SINIA
Nicaragua's National Environmental Information System (in Spanish)

Nicaragua Network Environmental Committee
The committee aspires to strengthen environmental protection in Nicaragua by working in solidarity with Nicaraguan non-governmental organizations (NGOs)

Nature Conservancy
Nature Conservancy is working with Nicaragua's leading environmental organizations to protect the country's rich natural heritage.


Nicaragua's History
The History of Nicaragua from pre-colonial times until today.

Historical Background of Nicaragua
Brief overview of Nicaragua's History.
History of Nicaragua
The free encyclopedia Wikipedia about Nicaragua's history.
Jóvenes Por Nicaragua
Site about Nicaragua with sections on policy, economy, and history.
Nicaragua's History
Historical summary and a timeline of the important events in Nicaragua's history.
Political History of Nicaragua
Nicaragua, as a Nation-State (Stanford University).

Native - Indigenous People of Nicaragua

Who Owns the Forest?
Article about conflicts between Nicaragua's indigenous tribes and Mestizo farmers.
La Nación Moskitia en Internet
Site with information about Miskito Nation (in Spanish)
Nicaragua and the Indian Revolution
Essay by Bernard Nietschmann on indigenous uprisings in Nicaragua during the 1980s.
Nicaragua's Unresolved Ethnic Problems
About the conflict between Nicaragua's central government in Managua and the Miskito Indians on the Caribbean coast.
The coming ethnic conflicts in Nicaragua
History of the ethnic group today recognized as the Miskito.
The history of Native Nicaragua
Various articles about the history of Nicaragua's native indians.

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Other countries of Middle and Central America:
Belize | Costa Rica | El Salvador | Guatemala | Honduras | Mexico | Panama

Countries of South America:
Argentina | Bolivia | Brazil | Chile | Colombia | Ecuador | French Guiana
Guyana | Paraguay | Peru | Uruguay | Suriname | Venezuela