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Destination Russia, the world's largest country. A virtual travel guide to the Russian Federation. This page aims to give you a broad overview of Russia's art, culture, people, environment, geography, history, economy and government.
Beside a country profile with facts and figures, the page contains links to sources which provide you with all the information you need to know about this nation between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean, e.g.: official web sites of Russia, addresses of Russian and foreign embassies, domestic airlines, city- and country guides with extensive travel and tourism information on accommodation, tourist attractions, events and more like weather information, maps, statistics and local newspapers from Russia.
St. Basil Cathedral and Kremlin
St. Basil Cathedral ©

Russian Federation | Rossiyskaya Federatsiya

Country Profile

Flag of Russian Federation
Flag of Russia

Russia in Cyrillic characters

where in the world is Russia

Official Name:
Rossiyskaya Federatsiya
short form: Rossiya
int'l long form: Russian Federation
int'l short form: Russia
former: Russian Empire, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic local

ISO Country Code: ru
Actual Time:
Moscow, Saint-Peterburg:
Mon-Mar-2  22:01
Local Time = UTC +3h
Actual Time: Novosibirsk:
Tue-Mar-3  01:01
Local Time = UTC +6h
Daylight Saving Time (DST) March - October

Country Calling Code: +7

Capital City: Moscow (pop. 8.3 million)

Other Cities:
St. Petersburg (4.6 million), Novosibirsk (1.4 million), Nizhniy Novgorod (1.3 million)

Independence: August 24, 1991.

Location: Northern Asia (that part west of the Urals is included with Europe), bordering the Arctic Ocean, between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean.
Area: 17 million km² (6.5 million sq. mi.); about 1.8 times the size of the United States.
Terrain: Broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains (Caucasus range) along southern borders.

Climate: Northern continental, from subarctic to subtropical.

Nationality: Russian(s).
Population: (2012) 143 million.
Ethnic groups: Russian 81%, Tatar 4%, Ukrainian 3%, other 12%.
Religion: Russian Orthodox, Islam, Judaism, Roman Catholicism, Protestant, Buddhist, other.
Language: Russian (official); more than 140 other languages and dialects.
Literacy: 98%.

Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas, timber, furs, precious and nonferrous metals.

Agriculture products: Grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, vegetables, fruits; beef, milk.

Industries: Complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space vehicles; shipbuilding; road and rail transportation equipment; communications equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors, and construction equipment; electric power generating and transmitting equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables, textiles, foodstuffs, handicrafts.

Exports partners: Germany 7.8%, Netherlands 6.5%, Italy 6.3%, China 6.2%, Belarus 5.7%, Ukraine 5.7%, USA 4.6%, Switzerland 4.4% (2003)

Imports partners: Germany 14%, Belarus 8.6%, Ukraine 7.7%, China 5.8%, USA 5.2%, Kazakhstan 4.7%, Italy 4.2%, France 4.1% (2003)

Currency: Russian Ruble (RUR)

The defeat of the Russian Empire in World War I led to the seizure of power by the communists and the formation of the USSR. The brutal rule of Josef STALIN (1924-53) strengthened Russian dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives. The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the following decades until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered the USSR into 15 independent republics. Since then, Russia has struggled in its efforts to build a democratic political system and market economy to replace the strict social, political, and economic controls of the communist period. A determined guerrilla conflict still plagues Russia in Chechnya.
(Source: CIA - The World Factbook)

border countries:
Azerbaijan, Belarus, China, Estonia, Finland, Georgia, Kazakhstan, North Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Mongolia, Norway, Poland, Ukraine

National Emblem of Russia
The double-headed eagle is the State Seal of the Russian Federation.

Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

Official Sites of Russia

Russian Government
Russias Home Page.

President of Russia
The official website of Russia's president, who is Vladimir Putin.

Council of Federation
The upper chamber of the Russian parliament.
State Duma
The State Duma is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs
MOFA Russian Federation.

Diplomatic Missions
Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation to the UN
Russia is one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council.
Embassy of the Russian Federation in the USA
Washington D.C.
Russian Embassies Abroad
Address list of Russian Embassies Abroad.
Foreign Embassies in Moscow
Address list of Foreign Embassies in Moscow.

State Comittee of the Russian Federation on Statistics.
Interstate Statistical Committee of the CIS
Official statistical information on social and economic situation in the CIS countries.

Federal Cities
Capital City:
The Municipality of Moscow the Russian Capital City. (in Russian)

St. Petersburg
Saint Petersburg City Administration. (in Russian)

Maps of Russia
Maps of Russia and the Former Soviet Republics.
Google Earth Google Earth Russian Federation
Searchable map and satellite view of Russian Federation.
Google Earth Google Earth Map of Moscow
Searchable map and satellite view of the capital, Moscow.
Google Earth Google Earth Map of Moscow Kremlin
Labeled map/satellite view of the Moscow Kremlin.
Google Earth Saint Petersburg
Searchable map and satellite view of Russia's cultural capital.
Google Earth Novosibirsk
Searchable map and satellite view of Russia's third largest city and the gateway to Siberia.
Google Earth Sochi
Searchable map and satellite view of Russia's Winter Olympic capital 2014.

Russia - Autonomous Areas in Russia
Chechenya (Chechen Republic) Map
Ethnolinguistic Groups of the Caucasus Region

profile Map of Asia
Reference Map of Asia.
Map of Europe
Political Map of Europe.

Russian Newspapers and News Agencies

Russian News Agency.
Russian News Agency.
International Journalists' Association "ASMO-Press"
Analytical materials in the field of economics, justice, history, some information and photos about regions, outstanding figures of Russia at the 20th century.
National and international news (in Rusian).
The Moscow Times
Up-to-the-minute news on Moscow, Russia and the world.
Russia Journal
Business weekly.
Russia Today
National and international news.
The St. Petersburg Times
The English-language newspaper of St. Petersburg, Russia.
National and international news.
Prime Tass
Business News Agency.
Vladivostok News on-line.

Homepage of the critical independent TV-Station they try to took over (in Russian).


Arts & Culture

 TC Art Gallery
by Catherine Yakovina, St. Petersburg.

The State Hermitage Museum
St Petersburg - Presents the development of the world culture and art from the Stone Age to the 20th century.
The Moscow Kremlin
Official website of the Kremlin Museum - the oldest museum in Russia.
Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts
The Museum has one of the most representative collection in Russia of foreign art dated from ancient times to modern days.
The State Tretyakov Gallery
One of the largest museums in Russia with more than 100 000 works of art, the museum of the history of Russian art presents icons, paintings, graphics and sculpture,.

Museums in Russia (official list)
Detailed information about any Russian museum. The official list of russian museums, more than 3000 museums listed.

National Library of Russia
The country's oldest state library, St. Petersburg.
Russian State Library
The largest library in Europe and the second largest in the world, Moscow.

United Space Of Humanity.

Institute of the Information Society - Russia
IIS.RU an independent non-government organisation for Information Society development in Russia.

Native - Russians indigenous peoples

Culture Center of the Northern Asian First Peoples' Art
For foreigner's & our first people's information, founded '96 in Ulan -Ude (Buryatia, Russia).
The Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District is a member of the Russian Federation, named after the native peoples Khanty and Mansi.
Site related to the Republic of Tuva is the former Tannu Tuva, a country in south Siberia, and a member of the Russian Federation (in Russian), see also Friends of Tuva.
Peterhof Palace
Peterhof Palace, St Petersburg

Business & Economy

Bank of Russia
The Central Bank of the Russian Federation.
Moscow Central Stock Exchange
(in Russian)

American-Russian Chamber of Commerce and Industry
Russian Business Cooperation Network Corporation
Russian Federation Chamber of Commerce and Industry
Russian National Trade Point


The Russian flag carrier.
East Line Group
Group of companies for air transportation and airport management at Domodedovo International Airport.
Pulkovo Aviation Enterprise
One of the biggest enterprises in aviation industry of Russia.
Siberia Airlines
Russia and abroad services.
Transaero Airlines serves domestic destinations and operates flights to Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and North America.
UTair is one of the five largest air carriers of Russia and the largest Russian helicopter airline.

JSC "Russian Railways"
Official website of Russian Railways, with information on passenger and freight transportation; Online services, Infrastructure, railway maps.
Railway Ticket Reservation Center
Railway adventure in Russia.
Trans-Siberian Railway
Railway guide with a photo-gallery of stations, views and bridges.

Belorusskii railway station, Moscow ©

Destination Russia - Travel and Tour Guides

Discover Russia: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Irkutsk, Ulan-Ude, Kamchatka, Baikal, Vladivostok, Trans-Siberian Railroad.
Accommodation, hotels, attractions, festivals, events, tourist boards, biking, skiing, hiking, climbing, cruising, diving, adventure tours and much more.

Travel Guide to Russia
Almost everything you need to know about travel to Russia , from The Moscow Times.
Russian National Group
Semi-official travel, tourism and visa application site.
great site  WayToRussia.Net
Comprehensive guide to Russia and a travel services directory.
"Where Russia" is a national portal for foreign tourists and businessmen, first of all Moscow and St. Petersburg.
Travel Russia
Travel information on Russia and St. Petersburg.

City Guides

Official web site.
Official City of Moscow Tourism web site.

St. Petersburg
Saint Petersburg City
Official English-language portal to St. Petersburg, offering a wide variety of information about the city and its life.
Saint-Petersburg: 1703 - 2003
2003 marks the 300th anniversary of the founding of St. Petersburg.

Heritage of Perm
Major events in cultural life, and also some thousand documents on a history, archaeology, art and architecture of the Perm region.

Russian Cities on the Web
Annotated links to Russian cities.

Grand Hotel Europe
Russia's oldest operating grand hotel, founded 1703.

More Hotels
 NEW  Hotels in Russia
Find a Hotel in Russia.

Kafkas Vakfi - Caucasus Foundation
Publishes social, political, cultural and historical researches on Caucasus.
Troubled borderland
BBC News about the Caucasus region.

Travel and Tour Consumer Information

Catherine Palace Tsarskoe
Catherine Palace Tsarskoe ©

Education & Research

The Moscow State University - MGU
Russian Academy of Science
Saint-Petersburg State University
Samara State Aerospace University
Samara State University
Tyumen State University

Russian Space Research
Astronomical Istitute
Astronomical Department of Saint Petersburg State University.
Space Research Institute (IKI)
Investigations of Outer Space.
Google Earth Google Earth Baikonur Cosmodrome
Satellite view of the Russian Baikonur Cosmodrome space launch facility in Kazakhstan.

Environment & Nature

Anti-nuclear and safe energy movement.
Greenpeace Russia
Greenpeace organization of Russia.
Guild of Ecologists
Over 30 leading Moscow environmental enterprises form the Guild of Ecologists.
Russian Green Pages
Russian Green Business Guide to environmental and ecological resources and companies in Russia and worldwide sorted by countries, regions and types.
Socio-Ecological Union
The Socio-Ecological Union is the only international ecological organization born in the USSR.


History of Russia
An overview on Russians history by interKnowledge.
Russian and Soviet history - bibliographical, research and teaching aids
Museum of History of Moscow.
Russian History Websites
The history of the Romanovs, Russian art and architecture.


Russian search engine (in Russian).
Russian search engine (in Russian).
Russia Online
Russia Index.
Russia On The Net
One of the first Russian Net directories.
Russian search engine (in Russian).

Additional Information on Russia

BBC News Country Profile: Russia
Open Directory: Russia
REENIC: Russia
Russian and East European Network Information Center about Russia.
Wikipedia: Russia
The World Factbook -- Russia
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Top Travel Destinations
Maps of the World
International Airlines
Popular Country Pages

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Actually, there are more than five colors,

Baron de Coubertin would have loved to use them all.

Why is it, that Gay and Lesbian people still are victims of persecution, harassment, and assaults occasioning actual bodily harm or worse?
Our world would be much poorer and colder without the creativity and ingenuity of the colorful LGBT* culture.
So, get up, stand up, and don't let it happen again and again and again.

Nature made sure, that all men are able to love each other without distinction of gender. This ability empowers humans to care for and to help each other. Natures gift simply secures the survival of the species.
But in some societies this natural law has been neglected by religions, governments and other interest groups in favour for better controllable straight-laced communities.

But if you know what life is worth, You will look for yours on earth
(lyrics from the song Get Up, Stand Up)
Bob Marley

* LGBT - acronym for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender

Declaration of Human Rights

Article I
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Article 2
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.