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With an area of 1,138,914 km², the country is somewhat larger than twice the size of France or slightly less than twice the size of the U.S. state of Texas.
Colombia's population of almost 49 million people (in 2016) making it the third-most populous country in Latin America. The population is concentrated in the Andean highlands and along the Caribbean coast.
Capital and largest city is Bogotá. Official language is Spanish, there are 68 ethnic languages and dialects still in use.
Rebublic of Colombia | Republica de Colombia
Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Ecuador and Venezuela).
A 40-year insurgent campaign to overthrow the Colombian government escalated during the 1990s, undergirded in part by funds from the drug trade. Although the violence is deadly and large swaths of the countryside are under guerrilla influence, the movement lacks the military strength or popular support necessary to overthrow the government. While Bogota continues to try to negotiate a settlement, neighboring countries worry about the violence spilling over their borders.
Four decades of conflict have turned Colombia into one of the world's worst humanitarian hotspots, with millions caught up in the crossfire between leftist rebels, cocaine smugglers and far-right paramilitary militias.
In October 2016 a referendum rejected a landmark peace deal between Marxist Farc rebels and the government to end 52 years of conflict. The deal was four years in the making and its rejection was a shock. Many of the Colombian people were angered that Farc guerrillas were offered congressional seats and non-custodial sentences such as clearing landmines in return for ending the conflict.
Incumbent President Juan Manuel Santos has spearheaded the accord, he won the Nobel Peace Prize 2016 for his efforts.
Republica de Colombia
conventional long form: Rebublic of Colombia
conventional short form: Colombia
former: United States of Colombia
ISO Country Code: co
Actual Time: Wed-Feb-21 02:45
Local Time = UTC -5h
Country Calling Code: +57
Capital City: Bogotá formerly Santa Fe de Bogotá, (pop. about 6 million)
Medellín, Cali, Barranquilla, Cartagena.
Independence: 20 July 1810.
Location: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama.
Area: 1.134 million km² (440,000 sq. mi.), fourth-largest country in South America.
Terrain: Flat coastal areas, with extensive coastlines on the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea, three rugged parallel mountain chains, central highlands, and flat eastern grasslands.
Climate: Tropical on coast and eastern plains, cooler in highlands.
Population: 49 million (2016)
GNI per capita PPP: $ 7 303 (year)
Ethnic groups: Mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1%
Religion: Roman Catholic 90%.
Literacy: 93% in urban areas, 67% in rural areas.
Natural resources: Coal, petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nickel, gold, silver, copper, platinum, emeralds.
Agriculture products: Coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; forest products; shrimp.
Industries: Textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds.
Exports partners:US 27.5%, Panama 7.2%, China 5.2%, Spain 4.4%, Ecuador 4% (2015)
Imports partners:US 28.8%, China 18.6%, Mexico 7.1%, Germany 4.2% (2015)
Currency: Colombian Peso (COP)
Note: External links will open in a new browser window.
Official Sites of ColombiaColombia
Presidencia de la Republica de Colombia.
Senado de la República
The Senate of the Colombian Republic. (in Spanish)
Online Information and Service by the Colombian Government. (mostly in Spanish)
Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores
The Ministry of External Relations. (in Spanish)
Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations
Misión Permanente de Colombia ante la ONU en Nueva York.
Embassy of Colombia in the U.S.
Foreign Missions in Colombia
List of foreign diplomatic missions in Colombia.
Colombian Missions Abroad
List of Colombia's diplomatic missions.
Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica - DANE
Statistics Colombia (in Spanish).
Map of Colombia
Political Map of Colombia.
Google Earth Colombia
Searchable map and satellite view of Colombia.
Google Earth Bogotá
Searchable map and satellite view of Bogotá, capital city of Colombia.
Map of Central America and the Caribbean
Reference Map of Central America and the Caribbean.
Map of South America
Reference map of South America.
Colombian Newspapers (all in Spanish)
El Diario On-Line
National and international news.
The oldest newspaper in Colombia.
Domestic and international news.
Noticias económicas, business news Colombia.
Bookmark/share this page
Arts & Culture
Biblioteca Nacional de Colombia
The National Library of Colombia. (in Spanish)
Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Guide to the university's activities to generate new interactions between education and culture.
Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Bogotá
The modern art museum in Bogotá.
Museo de Antioquia
The Museum of Antioquia is an art museum in Medellín, it houses a large collection of works by Medellín native Fernando Botero and Pedro Nel Gómez.
Museo del Oro
Gold Museum in Bogota displays pre-Hispanic goldwork collection.
Business & Economy
Banco de la República
Central Bank Colombia (in Spanish).
Bolsa de Valores de Colombia
Stock Exchange Colombia (in Spanish).
Confederacion Colombiana de Camaras de Comercio
The Colombian Federation of Chambers of Commerce.
Cámara de Comercio de Bogotá
Chamber of Commerce Bogotá (in Spanish).
Colombian Government Trade Bureau
Doing business in Colombia, Import, Export and Trade information.
Federación Nacional de cafeteros
Colombian Coffee Growers Federation.
Café de Colombia
Colombian Coffee (Spanish).
Colombian Yellow Pages.
The Colombian Airline.
Travel and Tour Consumer Information
Destination Colombia - Travel and Tour Guides
Destination Colombia: Bogota, Monserrate, Tayrona National Natural Park, Catedral de Sal, Zipaquirá, Rosario Islands, Castillo San Felipe de Barajas, Santa Cruz de Mompox, Malpelo Island.
Pontivicia Universidad Javeriana
Universidad de Antioquia
Official website of the University of Antioquia, Medellín (in Spanish)
Universidad de los Andes
The official university website provides information about EAFIT and its study programs.
Universidad La Gran Colombia
The National University of Colombia, a public, research university with branches in Bogotá, Medellín, Manizales and Palmira.
Universidad Nacional / Medellín
Universidad del Valle
The University of Valle is a public, research university in Cali, Valle del Cauca.
Colombian Institute for Science and Techonology Development
Environment & Nature
Parques Nacionales Naturales de Colombia
Site of the National System of Protected Areas in Colombia.
WWF Colombia site. (in Spanish)
WWF in Colombia
Site about WWF's work in Colombia.
Archivo General de la Nación
The Colombian National Archive. (in Spanish)
Departamento de Historia, Universidad del Valle
Department of History (in Spanish)
History of Colombia
Documents about Colombia's history by World History Archives.
History of Colombia
Decades of conflict have turned Colombia into one of the world's worst humanitarian hotspots. More than 3 million people have been forced from their homes and tens of thousands have been killed. The main players are government troops, leftist rebels, right-wing militias and cocaine cartels.
Sites related to the very difficult political and social situation in Colombia.
Article about the possible end of a long-running war (2016).
Colombia: is the end in sight to the world's longest war? (2016)
Human Rights Watch: Colombia
HRW Org about Colombia.
__Sites from and about abductees of the FARC
Ingrid Betancourt and Clara Rojas since Februar 2002 prisoners of the FARC. A multilingual site for information on Ingrid's and Clara's abduction.
Die dunkle Seite der FARC
The dark side of the FARC, site from FARC abductees Ulrich and Thomas Künzel, and Reiner Bruchmann. (in German)
Various Interest Groups of ColombiaRight-wing paramilitaries, who have deep links with the army and police.
AUC - Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia
The right-wing paramilitary United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia.
The bulk of the AUC's blocs was demobilized by early 2006 and its former top leaders were extradited to the U.S. in 2008. However, local successors such as the Black Eagles (Spanish: Águilas Negras) continue to exist and death threats have been made using its name.
__Marxist guerrilla groups:
The National Liberation Army, Colombia's second largest guerrilla group. (in Spanish)
FARC-EP - Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia
The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia - Ejercito del Pueblo, Colombia's main guerrilla group.
Etnias de Colombia
Site for and about ethnic groups of Colombia, by Fundación Hemera. (in Spanish)
Sources and additional Information on Colombia
Amnesty International: Colombia
BBC Country Profile: Colombia
The Heritage Foundation: Colombia
Human Rights Watch: Colombia
Reporters Without Borders: Colombia
The World Factbook -- Colombia
Other Countries of South America:
Argentina | Bolivia | Brazil | Chile | Ecuador | French Guiana
Guyana | Paraguay | Peru | Suriname | Uruguay | Venezuela
Major Cities in South America:
Belo Horizonte, Bogotá, Brasilia, Buenos Aires, Caracas, La Paz, Lima, Manaus, Montevideo, Paramaribo,
Porto Alegre, Quito, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador (da Bahia, Santiago, São Paulo, Sucre
Countries of Middle and Central America:
Belize | Costa Rica | El Salvador | Guatemala | Honduras | Mexico | Nicaragua | Panama
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