Bosnia and Herzegovina
___ Bosnia and Herzegovina
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina is a Southeastern European country located in the western Balkans, bordering the Adriatic Sea, it was formerly one of the states of the former federation of Yugoslavia until it declared its independence in March 1992.
Location map of Bosnia and Herzegovina
BiH is bordered by Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia
Bosnia and Herzegovina occupies an area of 51,200 km² (19,768 sq. mi.), making it somewhat smaller than neighboring Croatia, or slightly smaller than West Virginia.
The country has a population of 3.53 million inhabitants. National capital and and largest city is Sarajevo. The country is home to three main ethnic groups, Bosniaks are the largest group, second are Serbs and Croats third. Spoken languages are Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian (all official).
keywords: Bosne i Hercegovine, BiH, Bosnia and Herzegovina information, Bosnia and Herzegovina facts, Bosnia and Herzegovina geography, Bosnia and Herzegovina news papers, travel Bosnia and Herzegovina, tourist information for Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina map.
Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina | Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine
Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October 1991, was followed by a declaration of independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties signed a peace agreement that brought to a halt the three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Agreement retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a joint multi-ethnic and democratic government. This national government was charged with conducting foreign, economic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government comprised of two entities roughly equal in size: the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments were charged with overseeing internal functions. In 1995-96, a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission is to deter renewed hostilities. SFOR remains in place although troop levels were reduced to approximately 12,000 by the close of 2002.
(Source: CIA - The World Factbook)
Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine
int'l short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
int'l long form: Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
abbreviations: BiH, B&H
ISO Country Code: ba
Actual Time: Fri-Mar-23 00:36
Local Time = UTC+1h
Country Calling Code: +387
Capital City: Sarajevo (est. pop 387,876)
Official Site of the Canton Sarajevo.
Banja Luka (220 000); Mostar (210 000); Tuzla (120 000); Bihac (50 000).
Type: Parliamentary democracy.
Independence: 1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia; referendum for independence was completed 1 March 1992; independence was declared 3 March 1992).
Constitution: the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995, included a new constitution now in force; note - Bosnia and Herzegovina, each of the entities also has its own constitution.
Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia.
Area: 51,200 km² (19,768 sq. mi.)
Terrain: Mountains in the central and southern regions, plains along the Sava River in the north.
Hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long severe winters; mild, rainy winters in the southeast.
Nationalities: Bosniak (Muslim), Bosnian Croat, Bosnian Serb.
Population: 3.53 million (2013)
GNI per capita PPP: $ 5 827 (year)
Ethnic groups: Bosniak 48%, Serb 34%, Croat 15%, other 0.5% (2000)
note: Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam.
Religions: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%, other 10%.
Languages: Bosnian, Serbian, Croatian (formerly "Serbo-Croatian").
Adult literacy rate: male 94%, female 78%
Natural resources: Deposits of coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, forests, copper, chromium, lead, zinc, hydropower.
Agriculture products: Wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock.
Industries: Steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining (2001)
Exports - commodities: metals, clothing, wood products
Exports partners: Slovenia 16.5%, Italy 15.9%, Germany 12.1%, Croatia 11.5%, Austria 11.1%, Turkey 5.2% (2015)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemical products, fuels, food and live animals
Imports partners: Croatia 19.3%, Germany 13.9%, Slovenia 13.8%, Italy 10.9%, Austria 5.7%, Hungary 5.2%, Turkey 4.5% (2015)
Currency: Convertible Marka (KM; now pegged to Euro; Iso-Code: BAM)
Note: External links will open in a new browser window.
Official Sites of Bosnia and HerzegovinaState Institutions of BiH:
The Presidency of BiH
Ministarstvo Vanjskih Poslova
Bosnia and Herzegovina Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Embassy of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the US
Embassy of Bosnia and Herzegovina
New Delhi, India.
OSCE Mission to Bosnia and Herzegovina
Official site of OSCE's Bosnia Mission (Peace, and elections monitoring).
Federalni zavod za statistiku
Federal Office of Statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina .
Agency for Statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina
More statistics by the Agency for Statistics.
Bosna i Hercegovina METEOBIH Federalní Meteoroloskí Zavod
Bosnia and Herzegovina METEOBIH Federal Meteorolocical Institute.
Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine :: Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is one of two main political entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being the Serbian Republic.
Vlada Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine
Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Parlament Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine
The Parliament of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Republika Srpska :: Serbian Republic
The Serbian Republic is one of two main political entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Vlada Republike Srpske
Republic of Srpska Government (Serbian Republic).
President of the Republic of Srpska
Official website of the President.
National Assembly of Srpska
The National Assembly of the Republic of Srpska.
Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Political Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Google Earth Bosnia and Herzegovina
Searchable map and satellite view of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Google Earth Sarajevo
Searchable map and satellite view of Bosnia and Herzegovina's capital city.
Map of the Mediterranean
Political Map of the Mediterranean.
Map of the Balkan Peninsula
Political Map of the Balkans.
Map of Europe
Political Map of Europe.
NewsTV is the chief news source in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The country offers a real diversity of broadcasters with more than 200 commercial radio and TV stations.
News magazine (in Serbo-Croatian).
Federalna Novinska Agencija - FENA
Federal News Agency of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Bosnian Serb government daily, Banja Luka.
Banja Luka daily with BiH News (in Serbo-Croatian).
A Sarajevo daily.
Radio and TV of Bosnia and Herzegovina
State-wide public broadcaster, operates BHRT.
Radio Television of the Republic of Serbian (PTPC)
RTRS operates a public TV service of the Bosnian Serb entity.
Sarajevo based commercial TV station.
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Arts & Culture
The Museum of Contemporary Art in Sarajevo.
National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina
The museum was founded in 1888, when Bosnia and Herzegovina was still a part of the Ottoman Empire. The National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the oldest western-style cultural and scientific institution in the country.
Sarajevo Film Festival
Since 1995 the Sarajevo Film Festival brings international and local celebrities and filmmakers to Sarajevo every year in August.
Business & Economy
Centralna Banka Bosne i Hercegovine (CBBH)
The Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Banja Luka Stock Exchange
Chamber of Commerce of BiH
The site informs about the activities of the chamber.
Travel and Tour Consumer InformationCountry Guides
Discover Bosnia and Herzegovina: accommodation, hotels, attractions, festivals, events.
Stari Most Old Bridge, Mostar, Kravice Waterfall, Vrelo Bosne woodland park, Gazi Husrev-beg Mosque, Sarajevo Tunnel, Sarajevo, Jahorina Mountain, Sutjeska National Park, and more.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Official Site of Bosnia and Herzegovina Tourism.
Tourism Association of Sarajevo
Tourist Information Centre Sarajevo.
Bosnia for Beginners
Bosnia and Herzegovina for Beginners, a travel report.
Grad Mostar-City of Mostar
Official site of the city of Mostar.
Mostar's tourism website.
Banja Luka University
The official website.
Sveuciliste u Mostaru
The University of Mostar.
Univerzitet "Dzemal Bijedic"
Institution of higher education, Mostar.
Univerzitet u Sarajevu
The University of Sarajevo.
Univerzitet u Tuzli
The University of Tuzla.
The Balkan Wars: 100 Years Later, a History of Violence
About the Balkan Wars by Time magazine.
History of Bosnia-Herzegovina
Wikipedia article about the history of Bosnia & Herzegovina.
Bosnian News Network (Bosnet)
A bulletin of (now historical) news from Bosnia compiled by the Balkan Institute and distributed through the mailing list "firstname.lastname@example.org".
WWW-VL History Index: Bosnia & Herzegovina
A guide to online resources of BiH history.
International Organizations in Bosnia and Herzegovina
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
Established to pass sentence on the serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia since 1991.
Office of the High Representative in Bosnia and Herzegovina
To ensure that Bosnia and Herzegovina is a peaceful, viable state on course to European integration.
Open Society Fund - Bosnia and Herzegovina
To help build the infrastructure and institutios necessary for promoting open society, Sarajevo.
United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Hezegovina
The United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina has completed its mandate in December 2002.
The official web site of the mission is no longer being updated, but can still be accessed for information on the mission.
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in Bosnia and Herzegovina
The UN Refugee Agency Representation in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Open Directory Project: Bosnia and Herzegovina
Additional Information on Bosnia and Herzegovina
BBC Country Profile: Bosnia and Herzegovina
Background Notes: Bosnia and Herzegovina
globalEDGE: Bosnia and Herzegovina
Wikipedia: Bosnia and Herzegovina
The World Factbook -- Bosnia and Herzegovina
Other Countries in the Mediterranean:
Albania | Algeria | Croatia | Cyprus | Egypt | France | Gaza Strip | Greece | Israel | Italy
Lebanon | Libya | Malta | Monaco | Morocco | Slovenia | Spain | Syria | Tunisia | Turkey
Other countries in the Balkan region:
Bulgaria | Macedonia, Rep. of | Montenegro | Romania | Serbia
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