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Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina | Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine

Country Profile

Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October 1991, was followed by a declaration of independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties signed a peace agreement that brought to a halt the three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Agreement retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a joint multi-ethnic and democratic government. This national government was charged with conducting foreign, economic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government comprised of two entities roughly equal in size: the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments were charged with overseeing internal functions. In 1995-96, a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission is to deter renewed hostilities. SFOR remains in place although troop levels were reduced to approximately 12,000 by the close of 2002.
(Source: CIA - The World Factbook)

border countries: Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia
where in Europe is Bosnia and Herzegovina?

Official Name:
Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine
int'l short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
int'l long form: Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
abbreviation: BiH

ISO Country Code: ba

Actual Time: Wed-June-1  05:38
Local Time = UTC+1h

Country Calling Code: +387

Capital City: Sarajevo (est. pop 387,876)
Official Site of the Canton Sarajevo.

Other Cities:
Banja Luka (220 000); Mostar (210 000); Tuzla (120 000); Bihac (50 000).

Type: Parliamentary democracy.
Independence: 1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia; referendum for independence was completed 1 March 1992; independence was declared 3 March 1992).
Constitution: the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995, included a new constitution now in force; note - each of the entities also has its own constitution.

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia.
Area: 51,200 kmĀ² (19,768 sq. mi.)
Terrain: Mountains in the central and southern regions, plains along the Sava River in the north.

Hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long severe winters; mild, rainy winters in the southeast.

Nationalities: Bosniak (Muslim), Bosnian Croat, Bosnian Serb.
Population: 3.84 million (2012)
GNI per capita PPP: $ 5 827 (year)
Ethnic groups: Bosniak 48%, Serb 34%, Croat 15%, other 0.5% (2000)
note: Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam.
Religions: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%, other 10%.
Languages: Bosnian, Serbian, Croatian (formerly "Serbo-Croatian").
Adult literacy rate: male 94%, female 78%

Natural resources: Deposits of coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, forests, copper, chromium, lead, zinc, hydropower.

Agriculture products
: Wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock.

Industries: Steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining (2001)

Exports partners: Italy 22.9%, Croatia 22.1%, Germany 20.3%, Austria 7.5%, Slovenia 6.9%, Hungary 4.9% (2004)

Imports partners: Croatia 26.4%, Germany 14.9%, Slovenia 13.4%, Italy 12%, Austria 6.9%, Hungary 6.4% (2004)

Currency: Convertible Marka (KM; now pegged to Euro; Iso-Code: BAM

Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

Official Sites of Bosnia and Herzegovina

State Institutions of BiH:

Predsjednistvo BiH
The Presidency of BiH

Ministarstvo Vanjskih Poslova
Bosnia and Herzegovina Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Diplomatic Missions
Embassy of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Washington DC.
OSCE Mission to Bosnia and Herzegovina
Official site of OSCE's Bosnia Mission (Peace, and elections monitoring).

Federalni zavod za statistiku
Federal Office of Statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina .

Bosna i Hercegovina METEOBIH Federalní Meteoroloskí Zavod
Bosnia and Herzegovina METEOBIH Federal Meteorolocical Institute.

Entity Institutions:

Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine :: Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is one of two main political entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being the Serbian Republic.
Vlada Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine
Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Parlament Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine
The Parliament of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Republika Srpska :: Serbian Republic
The Serbian Republic is one of two main political entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Vlada Republike Srpske
Republic of Srpska Government (Serbian Republic).
President of the Republic of Srpska
Official website of the President.
National Assembly of Srpska
The National Assembly of the Republic of Srpska.


Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Political Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Google Earth Google Earth Bosnia and Herzegovina
Searchable map and satellite view of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Google Earth Google Earth Sarajevo
Searchable map and satellite view of Bosnia and Herzegovina's capital city.

Map of the Mediterranean
Political Map of the Mediterranean.
Map of the Balkan Peninsula
Political Map of the Balkans.
Map of Europe
Political Map of Europe.


Federalna Novinska Agencija - FENA
Federal News Agency of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
News magazine (in Serbo-Croatian).
Nezavisne Novine
BiH News (in Serbo-Croatian).
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Arts & Culture

Ars Aevi
The Museum of Contemporary Art in Sarajevo.
SFF - Sarajevo Film Festival


Business & Economy

Centralna Banka Bosne i Hercegovine (CBBH)
The Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Investment Bank of the Federation of BiH
Foreign Investment Promotion Agency

Banja Luka Stock Exchange

Chamber of Commerce of BiH
The site informs about the activities of the chamber.
Country Guides

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Official Site of Bosnia and Herzegovina Tourism.
Tourism Association of Sarajevo
Tourist Information Centre Sarajevo.

Bosnia for Beginners
Bosnia and Herzegovina for Beginners.
Mostar online
This page gives you information about Bosnia-Herzegovina and about the city of Mostar.
SarayNet - sarajevski elektronski magazin
Sarajevo electronic magazine (in Serbo Croatian).

Hotels in Bosnia-Herzegovina
Find a Hotel in Bosnia-Herzegovina.

Travel and Tour Consumer Information


Banja Luka University
The official website.
Sveuciliste u Mostaru
The University of Mostar.
Univerzitet "Dzemal Bijedic"
Institution of higher education, Mostar.
Univerzitet u Sarajevu
The University of Sarajevo.
Univerzitet u Tuzli
The University of Tuzla.


Balkan Timeline
From 1914-1995 by Time magazine.
Bosnia HomePage at Caltech
(now historical) page with information about Bosnia as well as Information on the History of Bosnia-Herzegovina
Bosnia & Herzegovina and its Borders According to International Agreements and Constitutional Law (Source: BosNet Archives).
A Brief History Of Bosnia-Herzegovina
By Andras Riedlmayer, Harvard University, for Mostar Online.
Bosnian News Network (Bosnet)
A bulletin of (now historical) news from Bosnia compiled by the Balkan Institute and distributed through the mailing list "".
WWW-VL History Index: Bosnia & Herzegovina
A guide to online resources of BiH history.

International Organizations in Bosnia and Herzegovina

International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
Established to pass sentence on the serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia since 1991.
Office of the High Representative in Bosnia and Herzegovina
To ensure that Bosnia and Herzegovina is a peaceful, viable state on course to European integration.
Open Society Fund - Bosnia and Herzegovina
To help build the infrastructure and institutios necessary for promoting open society, Sarajevo.
United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Hezegovina
The United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina has completed its mandate in December 2002.
The official web site of the mission is no longer being updated, but can still be accessed for information on the mission.
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in Bosnia and Herzegovina
The UN Refugee Agency Representation in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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