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___ China, 中国

Destination China, a virtual travel guide to mainland China, the most populated country on earth, which in turn is also a controversial nation. This page aims to give you a broad overview of China's art, culture, people, environment, geography, history, economy and government.
Beside a country profile with facts and figures, the page contains links to sources which provide you with all the information you need to know about this East Asian nation, e.g.: official web sites of China, addresses of China and foreign embassies, domestic airlines, city- and country guides with extensive travel and tourism information on accommodation, tourist attractions, events and more like weather information, maps, statistics and local newspapers from China.

Guilin Ljiang River - China
Guilin, Ljiang River Landscape
© Guangxi Travel online
 

People's Republic of China | Zhong Guo

Country Profile


Flag of China

Flag of China

Zhong Guo - China
Zhong Guo (China, the middle Kingdom)
in traditional Chinese Characters
where in the world is China?

Background:
For centuries China has stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences.
But in the first half of the 20th century, China was beset by major famines, civil unrest, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established a dictatorship that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people.
After 1978, Mao's successor DENG Xiaoping gradually introduced market-oriented reforms and decentralized economic decision making. Output quadrupled in the next 20 years and China now has the world's second largest GDP. Political controls remain tight even while economic controls continue to weaken.
(Source: CIA - The World Factbook)

border countries: Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Kazakhstan, North Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Mongolia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, Vietnam

China related countries and regions: Hong Kong (SAR), Macau (SAR), Taiwan (the P.R.C. considers Taiwan to be its 23rd province), Tibet (TAR) (Province Xizang - Under Sovereignty of China)
 

Official Name:
Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
local short form: Zhong Guo
int'l short form: China
(traditional Chinese: 中國; simplified Chinese: 中国; Pinyin: Zhōngguó
int'l long form: People's Republic of China
abbreviation: P.R.C. (People's Republic of China)

ISO Country Code: cn

Actual Time: Thu-Apr-24  05:14
Local Time = UTC +8h
(China extends across five times zones, but the country uses a single time zone.)

Country Calling Code: +86

Capital City: Beijing
(Municipality population 19,6 million)

Other major Cities:
Shanghai (municipality population 23 million),
Tianjin (municipality population 13 million), Hong Kong ((urban population 6.8 million), Wuhan (urban population 4.4 million), Guangzhou (Canton, urban population 4.1 million), Shenyang (urban population 4 million), Chongqing (municipality population 28.8 million), Harbin (Ha'erbin, urban population 2.6 million), Chengdu (urban population 2.3 million); (population figures 2011).

China's 20 most populated cities

Government:
Type: Communist party-led state
Constitution: 4 December 1982.
Head of state: President Hu Jintao
Independence: Unification under the Qin (Ch'in) Dynasty 221 BC;
Qing (Ch'ing or Manchu) Dynasty replaced by a republic on 12 February 1912;
People's Republic established 1 October 1949.

Geography:
Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam
Total area: 9.6 million km² (about 3.7 million sq. mi.), third largest country in the world, slightly smaller than the US and almost as large as the combined nations of Europe.
Terrain: Plains, deltas, and hills in east; mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west.

Climate: From tropical in south to subarctic in north.

People:
Nationality: Chinese (singular and plural).
Population: 1,347,350,000 (2012).
GNI per capita PPP: $ 6193 (year)
Ethnic groups: Han Chinese 91.6%; beside the Han population China recognizes fifty-five minority nationalities which comprise 8.4 percent of China's total population among them are: Zhuang, Manchu, Hui, Miao, Uygur, Yi, Mongolian, Tibetan, Buyi, Korean and other nationalities.
Religions: Officially atheist; Taoism, Buddhism, Islam, Christianity.
Language: PuTongHua (Mandarin), Wu (spoken in Shanghai), Yue (Cantonese) plus other dialects like Min, Hakka (Kejia), Gan and Xiang.
Chinese is spoken by more people than any other language in the world.
Literacy: 81%

Natural resources: Coal, iron ore, crude oil, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, world's largest hydropower potential.

Agriculture products: Rice, wheat, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, cotton, oilseed, pork, fish.

Industries: Iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles and apparel, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers, footwear, toys, food processing, automobiles, consumer electronics, telecommunications.

Currency: Yuan Renminbi (CNY)

China in Figures
China key statistical data.
 

Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

Official Sites of China

General Office, National Committee, Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC)
Official site of the General Office of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. (in Chinese)

Government Online Project
(in Chinese)

China National Space Administration
China's long way to space.

China Internet Information Center
The Official site of the China Information Center.


Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China.

Diplomatic Missions
Permanent Mission of the People's Republic of China to the UN
China is one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.
Chinese Embassy in the United Kingdom
Embassy of China in the UK.
Embassy of the People's Republic of China in the USA
Washington D.C.
China Visa
A guide to apply a visa to China (USA) for other countries see:
China's Missions Overseas
Diplomatic Missions of China Abroad.



Statistics
China Statistical Information Network
Mainland China in Figures.
Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong
Hong Kong statistics.


Weather
China Meteorological Bureau
Weather in China.


Maps
Administrative Map of China
Political Map of China's Administrative Divisions.
Maps of China
China Country and City Maps.

Google Earth Google Earth China
Searchable map and satellite view of China.
Google Earth Google Earth Forbidden City, Beijing
Searchable map and satellite view of the former imperial city with description of the buildings.
Google Earth Google Earth Great Wall of China
Searchable map and satellite view of the Chinese Wall.
Google Earth Google Earth Shanghai
Searchable map and satellite view of Shanghai.
Google Earth Satellite View of Three Gorges Dam
Searchable map and satellite view of Yangtze River and the largest hydroelectric dam in the world.
Maps of Yangtze
Maps of Yangtze river regions and cities.

Map of Southeast Asia
Map of the Southeast Asia region.
profile Map of Asia
Political map of Asia.
 

China News

China.com
China portal with news from China and Hongkong.
China Daily
China and world news.
China Internet Information Center
The Official China Information Center.
People's Daily
The official newspaper of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CCCPC), People's Daily is the most authoritative newspaper in China.
Shanghai Daily
Premier English-language newspaper in Shanghai (Subscribers only).
SingTao
China News. (in Chinese)
Sinopolis
China information.
South China Morning Post
SCMP.com - the online edition of South China Morning Post, a Hong Kong English-language newspaper.
The Standard
Greater China's Business Newspaper.
Xinhua
The Chinese News Agency.

Radio/TV
China Central Television
Now renamed to China Network Television (China Network Television), CCTV is the one of the most important TV stations in China.
China Radio International
CRI Online provides News and Information from and about China.

International News on China
Yahoo! Full Coverage China
 


 

Arts & Culture

Cai Guo-Qiang
Fire works.
Stockholm Challenge Award Chinese Archery
Information about archery traditions from Asian Traditional Archery Research Network (ATARN).

Chinese Customs and Traditions
Explanation of Chinese customs, traditions and beliefs related to Chinese New Year (spring festival)
and other lunar festivals and holidays.

China Art Network
A large-scale of professional Chinese art.
China Avant Garde
Chinese contemporary art.
China the Beautiful
A guide to Chinese Art and Literature.
Chinese Propaganda Poster
A site dedicated to the Chinese propaganda poster as they have been produced from 1949 till today.
Lang Lang
Pianist.
Lei Feng
Page about the in China well known Cultural Revolution hero and soldier-model Lei Feng.
New Chinese Art
Portal to contemporary Chinese art.
Red Gate Gallery
More contemporary Chinese art.
Zhong Guo Guo Jia Tu Shu Guan
The National Library of China holds the largest collection of Chinese books in the world.

Falun Gong
Falun Dafa Information Center
Information about the meditation group Falun Gong, this formally declared ''illegal organisation''.

The Official Chinese View
Xinhua Commentary calls for long-term fight against Falun Gong cult
A Xinhua commentary called for a fight until the end against the Falun Gong cult in order to ensure the prosperity and stability of the nation as well as the safe and comfortable lives of the public.
 



Business & Economy

Zhongguo Renmin Yinhang
The People's Bank of China, the central bank of the People's Republic of China.

Bank of China
Established in 1912, Bank of China is the oldest bank in China.


HKEx
Hong Kong Stock Exchange.
Shanghai Stock Exchange
The Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE) was founded on Nov. 26th,1990 and in operation on Dec.19th the same year.
Shenzhen Stock Exchange
The Shenzhen Stock Exchange (SZSE), established on December 1st 1990, is one of the two stock exchanges in mainland China.

Chambers of Commerce in China
Links to several Chambers.

China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT)
The largest institution for the promotion of foreign trade in China.

China National Arts & Crafts Import & Export Group
The most important importer and exporter of arts and crafts in china.

Made-in-China.com
Information of China Products.

 
__Transportation

Airlines
Major Airlines in China
Air China
Flagship airline of the People's Republic of China.
China Eastern Airlines
Shanghai based Airline; offers online booking and route plan.
China Northern Airlines
Shenyang based airline.
China Southern Airlines
China's largest airline, based at Guangzhou's brand-new Baiyun International Airport.

Major Airports in China
Beijing Capital International Airport
Flight Info, Passengers Guides and more.
Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport
Number two of China's busiest airports.
Shanghai International Airport
Official website of Shanghai Airport Authority for Pudong Airport and Hongqiao Airport.
Shenzhen Bao'an International Airport
Airport of the 'Special Economic Zone' city Shenzhen, located immediately north of Hong Kong.
 


Destination China - Travel and Tour Guides

Discover China Mainland - China's top 10 leisure spots:
Suzhou, Jiangsu province; Qinhuangdao, Hebei province; Guilin, Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region; Huangshan, Anhui province; Yantai, Shandong province; Chengdu, Sichuan province; Lijiang, Yunnan province; Sanya, Hainan province; Qingdao, Shandong province; and Hangzhou in Zhejiang province.


China related Sites
China National Tourism Administration
The Official China Tourism Website.

China National Tourist Office New York
China travel information USA provides travel and tourism information on China and offers city guides to various Chinese cities.
China National Tourist Office, Toronto, Canada
China travel information Canada.

Olympics
Olympic Games Beijing 2008
Official site of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games Bid Committee.

Local Tourism Administrations

Guangdong Tourism Bureau
Official website for all Peoples traveling to Guangdong.

Guangxi Travel online
Guangxi Travel online travel and tourism guide to Guangxi province by Guangxi Tourism Administration.

Hainan
Hainan International Tourism Destination.

Hebei Government
Hebei Government website with travel information.

Hubei Tourism Bureau
Hubei travel and tourism information. (in Chinese)

Jiangsu Tourism
Jiangsu travel and tourism information by the Jiangsu Tourism Bureau.

Shandong
Shandong Tourism Information website.

Sichuan
Sichuan Tourism Bureau website.

Tibet Tourism Bureau
Online travel and tourism guide to Tibet.

Yunnan and Greater Mekong Region
Travel guide to Yunnan province and the Greater Mekong Subregion.

Zhejiang Online
Official information site for Zhejiang.

Other Travel related Sites

China ABC - Brief Introduction to China
The Xinhua News Agency provides very comprehensive information about China.
China Today
Information on the People's Republic of China (P.R.C.)
Discover Yangtze
Yangtze river cruises.


City Guides

Beijing
Beijing Municipal Government
Beijing's official site.
eBeijing International
A guide to living in Beijing for non residents, the website provides information in news, investment, employment, tourism, and regulations.
Beijing Tourism Information
The official Beijing travel and tourism site maintained by Beijing Municipal Bureau of Tourism.
The Beijing Page
A guide to China and Beijing by Yang Zhang.

Shanghai
Shanghai
The official City of Shanghai site.
Shanghai Tour
The official Shanghai tourism guide.
Shanghai
A guide to Shanghai.

Yantai
Yantai
The City of Yantai.


Hotels
Hotels in China
Find a Hotel in China.
 

Travel and Tour Consumer Information
 
 
 

Education

Beijing University
Peking University sometimes called Bei Da, is the National key university, the former "Metropolitan University" of the Qing Dynasty, opened in December 1898.
China Education and Research Network
Very comprehensive site by Ministry of Education about Education in China.
Nan Kai University
The former Nankai School changed 1919 to Private Nankai University, Tianjin.
Northeastern University (NEU)
Located in Shenyang of Liaoning Province, founded in 1923.
Southeast University
National Central University, founded 1902.
Tianjin University
First university in the history of modern Chinese education, founded 1895.
Tsinghua University
State key university, established 1911 as "Tsinghua Xue Tang", Beijing.
Xiamen University
Founded in 1921.
 
 

Environment & Nature

Center for Biodiversity and Indigenous Knowledge
CBIK, a non-profit organization enables local groups in Southwest China to strengthen their evolving cultural traditions and generate innovative ways to improve their livelihoods and enhance biodiversity.
China New Energy Network
Information on new and renewable energy, with particular reference to China.
China Clean Energy Program (CCEP)
Natural Resources Defense Council program encouraging clean power, green buildings, and sustainable transportation. Includes research publications, progress reports, and photos.

Cleaner Production in China
Information on the government's strategy for cutting pollution. Covers legislation, policies, case studies and international co-operative projects, as well as the basic concepts and tools used.

China Three Gorges Project
Official website of the China Yangtze Three Gorges Project, until now the largest hydropower-complex project ever built in the world.

 

Language

Chinese character dictionary
Chinese dictionary with various search functions includes a useful English/Chinese dictionary, output in images and unicode.
ChineseComputing.com
This site answers your questions about viewing and using Chinese on computers, and has related explanations, links, and sample programs.
Learning Chinese Online
Essential list to sites needed to learn Chinese, provided by Tianwei Xie.
Marjorie Chan's ChinaLinks
Site with annotated links to over six hundred China, Chinese language and linguistics-related websites.

Chinese dictionaries
MDBG free online Chinese-English dictionary
The website is not just a dictionary, it offers various tools such as: flashcards, quizzes, text annotation, Chinese text input and more.
nciku Chinese dictionary
Excellent online English Chinese dictionary with features for Chinese language learner, including handwriting recognition, audio pronunciation, pinyin generator, MP3 maker, etc.
 On-line Chinese Tools
Mandarintools is a comprehensive site assisting people in learning and using Chinese language.


 Chinese Country Names
List of Chinese Names for foreign countries in Simplified Chinese (unicode) and Pinyin spelling.

Pinyin
pin=spell yin=sound. In 1979, the Chinese Government officially adopted the pinyin romanization scheme for spelling Chinese names and places in Roman letters, it replaces formerly used spellings like the Wade-Giles romanization system.

Pinyin.info
A guide to the writing of Mandarin Chinese in romanization.
Pinyin
Chinese Culture: Mandarin - A short course on the pinyin romanization system by Qi Journal.
 


Search

great site  Baidu
Sophisticated Chinese language search engine.
China.com
Webguide to China.
web culture chinasite.com
Comprehensive China and Asia index.

Open Directory: China

Additional Information on China

BBC News Country Profile: China
China WWW Virtual Library - Internet Guide for Chinese Studies
Carefully selected and annotated links to internet sites that may be useful to anyone with some interest in "Greater China".
Human Rights Watch: China and Tibet
Visions of China
50 years of the People's Republic, a CNN in-depth special.
Webster's Online Dictionary
Wikipedia: China
The World Factbook -- China
 
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Special Administrative Regions of China:
Hong Kong | Macau | Tibet

Other Countries in Eastern Asia:
Japan | Mongolia | North Korea | South Korea | Taiwan (ROC)


Countries of the World: A - C | D - G | H - L | M - P | Q - T | U - Z
Continents: Africa | The Americas | Asia | Australia/Oceania | Europe
 

Actually, there are more than five colors,

Baron de Coubertin would have loved to use them all.

Why is it, that Gay and Lesbian people still are victims of persecution, harassment, and assaults occasioning actual bodily harm or worse?
Our world would be much poorer and colder without the creativity and ingenuity of the colorful LGBT* culture.
So, get up, stand up, and don't let it happen again and again and again.

Nature made sure, that all men are able to love each other without distinction of gender. This ability empowers humans to care for and to help each other. Natures gift simply secures the survival of the species.
But in some societies this natural law has been neglected by religions, governments and other interest groups in favour for better controllable straight-laced communities.

But if you know what life is worth, You will look for yours on earth
(lyrics from the song Get Up, Stand Up)
Bob Marley



* LGBT - acronym for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender

Declaration of Human Rights

Article I
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Article 2
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.