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___ Myanmar - Burma

Destination Myanmar, this page is about many aspects of the country also called the Golden Land. Here you will find comprehensive information about Myanmar, or Burma, in its diversity: geography, economy, science, people, culture, environment, government and history.
You will have access to newspapers from Myanmar and you will find extensive travel and tourism information.
Shwedagon Pagoda Yangon
Shwedagon Pagoda Yangon © Nations Online

Union of Myanmar | Burma

Country Profile


m
Flag of Myanmar

Myanmar Flag
Former Flag of Myanmar (1974 - 2010)
Where in Asia is Burma - Myanmar?
Official Name:
Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw
short form: Myanma
int'l long form: Union of Myanmar
int'l short form: Myanmar
formerly: Burma

ISO Country Code: mm

Country Calling Code: +95

Capital City since 6 November 2005: Naypyidaw (Nay Pyi Taw)

Other Cities:
Yangôn (Rangoon, pop. 5 million), Mandalay (pop. 700 000)

Government:
Type: nominally civilian government (since 29th March 2011, when Burma's military handed over power). The new political system came into effect after an election in November 2010.
Constitution: 3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988 when latest junta took power). Burma has been under military authority since 1962.

Geography:
Location: Southeast Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal.
Area: 676,578 km² (261,228 square miles).
Terrain: A land of hills and valleys rimmed in the north, east and west by mountain ranges forming a giant horseshoe. Enclosed within the mountaion barriers are the flat lands of Ayeyarwaddy, Chindwin and Sittaung River valleys where most of the country's agricultural land and population are concentrated.

Climate: Tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April).

People:
Nationality: Burmese.
Population: 48 million (2010 estimate)
Ethnic groups: according to Myanmar's Ministry of Foreign Affairs there are 8 Major National Ethnic Races in Myanmar, which all comprises different ethnic groups: the Kachin, the Kayah, the Kayin, the Chin , the Mon, the Bamar, the Rakhine, and the Shan.
according to the CIA World Factbook the ethnic groups are: Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Arakanese 4%, Chinese 3%, Mon 2%, Indian 2%, other 5%.
Religions: Buddhism (89.2%), Christianity (5.0%), Islam (3.8%), Hinduism (0.5%), Spiritualism (1.2%) and others (0.2%).
Languages: Burmese; Myanmar is a union of 135 ethnic groups with their own languages and dialects.
Literacy: 90% (2003 official Government of Burma statistics); estimates of functional literacy are closer to 30%

Natural resources: Timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal, limestone, precious stones like jade, ruby and sapphires, natural gas, hydropower, and some petroleum.

Agriculture Products: Rice, pulses, beans, sesame, groundnuts, sugarcane, hardwood, fish and fish products.

Industries: Agricultural processing; knit and woven apparel; wood and wood products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer; cement.


Myanmar in numbers
Myanmar key statistical data.



Background:
Myanmar is a country in Southeast Asia, formerly known as Burma. Previously an independent kingdom, Burma was annexed by the British Empire into the colony of India in 1886. The occupation brought social, economic, cultural and administrative changes to the once-feudal society. The Japanese Empire invaded and occupied the country during World War II but it was returned to British control until independence in 1948.

The name of the country was changed in 1989 by the ruling military government, officially recognized by the United Nations. Some national governments, such as Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States, and much of the Burmese population do not recognize this name change, since they do not recognize the military government.

Despite multiparty elections in 1990 that resulted in the main opposition party winning a decisive victory, the military junta refused to hand over power.
Key opposition leader and Nobel Peace Prize recipient AUNG San Suu Kyi, has been set under house arrest from 1989 to 1995, and was again placed under house detention in September 2000; her supporters are routinely harassed or jailed. In 2011 the military junta was dissolved following a general election in 2010 and a civilian government has been installed.

Border countries: Bangladesh, China, India, Laos, Thailand

 


Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

Official Sites of Myanmar

The Golden Land Myanmar
Myanmar Official Government Home Page.


Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Site of the ministry with information on Myanmar and its foreign relations.

Diplomatic Missions
Permanent Mission of the Union of Myanmar to the United Nations and Other International Organizations
Geneva, Switzerland.
Consulate General of Myanmar in Hong Kong
With information on Myanmar in English and Chinese.
Myanmar Embassy Singapore
The embassy provides as well information on Myanmar.
Missions of Myanmar
List of Myanmar missions in foreign countries.
Foreign Embassies Addresses in Myanmar
Address List of Foreign Embassies Addresses in Myanmar.



Statistics
Central Statistical Organization Myanmar
Provider of official statistics of Myanmar.


Maps
profile Map of Myanmar
Political Map of Myanmar.
profile Administrative Map of Myanmar
Administrative Map of Myanmar showing Myanmar and the surrounding countries with international borders, state/division boundaries, the administrative capital Naypidaw, state and division capitals, major cities, main roads, railroads and airports.

Map of Southeast Asia
Map of the Southeast Asia region.
profile Map of Asia
Reference Map of Asia.

Google Earth Google Earth Myanmar
Searchable map and satellite view of Myanmar.
Google Earth Google Earth Yangon
Searchable map and satellite view of Yangon.
Google Earth Google Earth Mandalay
Searchable map and satellite view of Myanmar's second city, Mandalay.
Google Earth Google Earth Naypyidaw
Searchable map and satellite view of Naypyidaw, Burma's new administrative capital.
Google Earth Google Earth Shwedagon Pagoda
Searchable map/satellite view of the Golden Pagoda and other landmarks in Yangon.
 

News

The Burmanet News
Burma (Myanmar) related news in Burmese.
Democratic Voice of Burma - DVB
DVB broadcasts twice a day Burma related current news and news commentaries.
The Irrawaddy
News Magazine covering Burma and Asia published by expatriates.
Mizzima.com
Specialising on Burma - related news and issues, especially India-Burma relations.
Myanmar Times
Official Myanmar Journal.
The New Light of Myanmar
An official daily newspaper from Myanmar.
Kyehmon - The Mirror
Myanmar news.

 
Bombay-Burma-Press
Erstwhile office of Bombay-Burma-Press
© Nations Online Project

 
 

Arts & Culture

Ten Myanmar Arts
Myanmar crafts.


Myanmar Culture
Introduction to Myanmar's culture by Yangonow magazine.


Do's and Don'ts in Myanmar
Also known as "Lawka Niti" for those who visits Myanmar or who is dealing with Myanmar people should observe certain rules.


The Art of Burma
Burma Art gallery, a collection of Burmese art presented by Center for Burma Studies, Northern Illinois University.

Language

Fonts
Burmese fonts
Aungsan, Burmese, Karen and Suukyi fonts available for Mac and PC.
 
Monywa
A Pagoda in Monywa
Mural paintings, Hpo Win Daung Caves
Mural paintings, Hpo Win Daung Caves, Monywa
Images © Nations Online Project 

Business & Economy



Transportation
Airlines
Air Bagan
Domestic carrier.
Asian Wings
Private airline based at Yangon International Airport.
Air Mandalay
A domestic and regional carrier for the tourism sector.
Myanmar Airways International
Offers international flights to Singapore and Bangkok.
Yangon Airways
Domestic airline in Myanmar.
 
 

Destination Myanmar - Travel and Tour Guides

Bagan, Inle Lake, Kyaikhtiyo, Mandalay, Mrauk U, Ngapali, Ngwe Saung, Yangon

Myanmar Tourism Promotion Board

Official Tourism information on Myanmar.

Golden Myanmar
Myanmar site by the Ministry of Hotels and Tourism with many photo galleries.

Myanmar
Comprehensive Myanmar travel information by Myanmar tourism promotion.

Burma- Grace Under Pressure
A virtual journey through Burma.

 myanmars.net
A comprehensive guide to Myanmar.

Faces of Myanmar
Images of Myanmar's poeple and places by Valeska Gehrmann.

City Guides
Yangôn
Yangon City.
 Yangonow
A guide on and about Yangon.

Hotels
Hotels in Myanmar
Find a Hotel in Myanmar.
 

Travel and Tour Consumer Information

Fisher at Saddarn Cave, Hpa An
Fisher at Saddan Cave, Hpa An
Image © Valeska Gehrmann

Education

Mandalay Technological University (MTU)
MTU is the second senior engineering university in Myanmar, located in Patheingyi Township, Mandalay.

University of Computer Studies, Yangon (UCSY)
UCSY offers both undergraduate and postgraduate degrees as well as diploma programs in computer studies.

University of Medicine 1 Yangon
Oldest medical school in Myanmar.

Yangon Technological University (YTU)
YTU was established in 1924 as the Department of Engineering under the University of Rangoon (Yangon).

Yangon University
Oldest and most well-known university in Myanmar, located in Kamayut, Yangon. (no official website; 2012)

Education in Burma (Myanmar)
Myanmar related research papers and projects on the web.
 
 

Environment

Terrestrial Ecoregions -- Tenasserim-South Thailand semi-evergreen rain forests
Information by World Wildlife Fund about this mountainous ecoregion of the southern portion of the Tenasserim Range, which separates Thailand and Myanmar.
 
 

History

Burma's History
Documents on Burma's history at Online Burma Library.
History of Myanmar
Myanma History by Myanmar Travel Information.
Myanmar History
Timeline, Rulers, Heroes, Prehistoric Caves, Pondaung man, 4 million Pagodas by myanmars.net.
Myanmar and Mon History

Wikipedia: History of Myanmar
Wikipedia articles about Myanmar's history.
 
 

Native

__Karen
KarenWebsite
The Karens, pronounced (Ka-ran), are an indigenous people to the southeast Asian countries of Thailand and Myanmar.
Behind Karen lines
Article about the Karens' bitter war against the Burmese junta.

__Mon
The Mon People
Information Home Page about the endangered Mon People, the earliest known inhabitants of lower Burma

__Shan
The Shanland
The official home of Shan Democratic Union and Shan Human Rights.

Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation (UNPO)
UNPO information on the Shan, Karenni, and Mon people of Burma.

 
 

Info

Human Rights
National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma
Burma's exile government.
Free Burma Coalition
An Internet-based organization with grassroots member groups and affiliates in 28 countries.
Behind Karen lines
Article about the Karens' bitter war against the Burmese junta.
Amnesty International Myanmar
Amnesty International Report about Myanmar.
The Burma Project
The Burma Project, established by the Open Society Institute in 1994, is dedicated to increasing international awareness of conditions in Burma and to helping the country make the transition from a closed to an open society.
Human Rights Watch: Myanmar
Background Briefings.
UNICEF Myanmar
Site provides an overview of its work to save children's lives, protect their health, provide them with educational opportunities and safe drinking water, and protect them from harm.

Press freedom
Reporters sans frontières - Myanmar
Press freedom report.

Additional Information on Myanmar

 Online Burma/Myanmar Library
Comprehensive background information on Burma/Myanmar with classified and annotated links to thousands of full text documents about Burma.
Open Directory: Myanmar
Wikipedia: Myanmar
The World Factbook -- Burma
 
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Actually, there are more than five colors,

Baron de Coubertin would have loved to use them all.

Why is it, that Gay and Lesbian people still are victims of persecution, harassment, and assaults occasioning actual bodily harm or worse?
Our world would be much poorer and colder without the creativity and ingenuity of the colorful LGBT* culture.
So, get up, stand up, and don't let it happen again and again and again.

Nature made sure, that all men are able to love each other without distinction of gender. This ability empowers humans to care for and to help each other. Natures gift simply secures the survival of the species.
But in some societies this natural law has been neglected by religions, governments and other interest groups in favour for better controllable straight-laced communities.

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* LGBT - acronym for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender

Declaration of Human Rights

Article I
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Article 2
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.