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___ Myanmar - Burma
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China, in east by Laos and Thailand, in west by Bangladesh and the Indian states of Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram. The country is also known as Burma and called the Golden Land.
Flag of Myanmar
The country covers an area of 676,578 km², making it almost twice the size of Germany or slightly smaller than the U.S. state of Texas.
Probably the highest elevation in both Myanmar and Southeast Asia's is Mount Hkakabo Razi (Khaka Borazi) at 5,881 m (19,295 ft) located in Kachin state near the country's northern border with China, about 110 km (70 mi) north of Putao. Burma's main rivers are the Chindwin (the 'Mighty Chindwin') and the Irrawaddy (Ayeyarwady).
Myanmar has a population of 51.4 million people (2014 census). Largest city, former capital, and the economic center of Myanmar is Yangon. Since 2005 Burma's new capital is Naypyidaw, a planned city in central. Spoken languages are Burmese (official). Kachin, Kayah, Karen, Chin, Mon, Rakhine, and Shan are regional languages. Rohingya, the language of the Rohingya people from Rakhine State is spoken by about 1.3 million. According to the United Nations, the Rohingya are one of the most persecuted minorities in the world. In 2017 hundreds of thousands Rohingya fled from western Myanmar into neighboring Bangladesh because of the repression and violence they face in Myanmar.
Republic of the Union of Myanmar | Burma
|ပြည်ထောင်စု သမ္မတ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော်||
Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw
short form: Myanma
int'l long form: Republic of the Union of Myanmar
int'l short form: Myanmar
formerly, but still in use: Burma
ISO Country Code: mm, MMR, .mm
Country Calling Code: +95
Capital City since 6 November 2005: Naypyidaw (Nay Pyi Taw)
Yangôn (Rangoon, pop. 5 million), Mandalay (pop. 700 000)
Type: nominally civilian government (since 29th March 2011, when Burma's military handed over power). The new political system came into effect after an election in November 2010.
Constitution: 3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988 when latest junta took power). The country's third and current constitution was published in September 2008. Burma has been under military authority since 1962.
Location: Southeast Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal.
Area: 676,578 km² (261,228 square miles).
Terrain: A land of hills and valleys rimmed in the north, east and west by mountain ranges forming a giant horseshoe. Enclosed within the mountaion barriers are the flat lands of Ayeyarwaddy, Chindwin and Sittaung River valleys where most of the country's agricultural land and population are concentrated.
Climate: Tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April).
Population: 51.4 million (2015)
Ethnic groups: according to Myanmar's Ministry of Foreign Affairs there are 8 Major National Ethnic Races in Myanmar, which all comprises different ethnic groups: the Kachin, the Kayah, the Kayin, the Chin , the Mon, the Bamar, the Rakhine, and the Shan.
according to the CIA World Factbook the ethnic groups are: Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Arakanese 4%, Chinese 3%, Mon 2%, Indian 2%, other 5%.
Religions: Buddhism (89.2%), Christianity (5.0%), Islam (3.8%), Hinduism (0.5%), Spiritualism (1.2%) and others (0.2%).
Languages: Burmese; Myanmar is a union of 135 ethnic groups with their own languages and dialects.
Literacy: 90% (2003 official Government of Burma statistics); estimates of functional literacy are closer to 30%
Natural resources: Timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal, limestone, precious stones like jade, ruby and sapphires, natural gas, hydropower, and some petroleum.
Agriculture Products: Rice, pulses, beans, sesame, groundnuts, sugarcane, hardwood, fish and fish products.
Industries: Agricultural processing; knit and woven apparel; wood and wood products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer; cement.
Exports - commodities: natural gas; precious stones including jade and burmite; wood products; pulses and beans; fish; rice; clothing; minerals,
Exports - partners: China 37.7%, Thailand 25.6%, India 7.7%, Japan 6.2% (2015)
Imports - commodities: fabric; petroleum products; fertilizer; plastics; machinery; transport equipment; cement, construction materials; food products'; edible oil
Imports - partners: China 42.2%, Thailand 18.5%, Singapore 11%, Japan 4.8% (2015)
Myanmar in numbers
Myanmar key statistical data.
Former Flag of Myanmar (1974 - 2010)
Previously an independent kingdom, Burma was annexed by the British Empire into the colony of India in 1886. The occupation brought social, economic, cultural and administrative changes to the once-feudal society. The Japanese Empire invaded and occupied the country during World War II but it was returned to British control until independence in 1948.
From 1962 to 2011, the country was ruled by a military junta with absolute power. The name of the country was changed in 1989 by the ruling military government, officially recognized by the United Nations. Some national governments, such as Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States, and much of the Burmese population do not recognize this name change, since they do not recognize the military government.
Despite multiparty elections in 1990 that resulted in the main opposition party winning a decisive victory, the military junta refused to hand over power.
Key opposition leader and Nobel Peace Prize recipient AUNG San Suu Kyi, has been set under house arrest from 1989 to 1995, and was again placed under house detention in September 2000; her supporters were routinely harassed or jailed. In 2011 the military junta was dissolved following a general election in 2010 and a civilian government has been installed. Since April 2016 Aung San Suu Kyi, Leader of the National League for Democracy of Myanmar, is the incumbent State Counsellor and she plays an important role in government, but her influence is rather weak.
Border countries: Bangladesh, China, India, Laos, Thailand
Image: Trond Viken, Utenriksdepartementet
Since 29th March 2011, when Burma's military handed over power, the country is ruled by a nominally civilian government. But the military retains considerable amount of power in government and parliament.
In 2008 the country adopted a new constitution, but some critics say it is 'less a charter for democracy than the generals' retirement plan' . In March 2016 the first democratically elected government went into session after more than fifty years of brutal military rule. But Aung San Suu Kyi, trailblazer of the pro-democracy movement, was barred by the constitution from becoming president.
Official Sites of MyanmarNote: External links will open in a new browser window.
The Golden Land Myanmar
Myanmar Official Government Home Page.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Site of the ministry with information on Myanmar and its foreign relations.
Permanent Mission of the Union of Myanmar to the United Nations and Other International Organizations
Consulate General of Myanmar in Hong Kong
With information on Myanmar in English and Chinese.
Myanmar Embassy Singapore
The embassy provides as well information on Myanmar.
Missions of Myanmar
List of Myanmar missions in foreign countries.
Foreign Embassies Addresses in Myanmar
Address List of Foreign Embassies Addresses in Myanmar.
Central Statistical Organization Myanmar
Provider of official statistics of Myanmar.
Map of Myanmar
Political Map of Myanmar.
Administrative Map of Myanmar
Administrative Map of Myanmar showing Myanmar and the surrounding countries with international borders, state/division boundaries, the administrative capital Naypidaw, state and division capitals, major cities, main roads, railroads and airports.
Google Earth Myanmar
Searchable map and satellite view of Myanmar.
Google Earth Yangon
Searchable map and satellite view of Yangon.
Google Earth Mandalay
Searchable map and satellite view of Myanmar's second city, Mandalay.
Google Earth Naypyidaw
Searchable map and satellite view of Naypyidaw, Burma's new administrative capital.
Google Earth Shwedagon Pagoda
Searchable map/satellite view of the Golden Pagoda and other landmarks in Yangon.
Map of Southeast Asia
Map of the Southeast Asia region.
Map of Asia
Reference Map of Asia.
The Burmanet News
Burma (Myanmar) related news in Burmese.
Democratic Voice of Burma - DVB
DVB broadcasts twice a day Burma related current news and news commentaries.
News Magazine covering Burma and Asia published by expatriates.
Specialising on Burma - related news and issues, especially India-Burma relations.
Official Myanmar Journal.
The New Light of Myanmar
An official daily newspaper from Myanmar.
Kyehmon - The Mirror
Myanmar Business Today
Myanmar's first bilingual business newspaper. (in English)
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Arts & CultureMyanmar is a nation with a multiplicity of ethnic groups, more than130 distinct ethnic groups are recognized by the Burmese government. By far the largest group (68%) are the Bamar people who speak the Burmese language (a Sino-Tibetan language).
Other main groups are Shan 9%, Kayin 7%, Rakhine 3.5%, Mon 2.0%, Kachin 1.25%, and Kayah 0.75%.
Other minorities in Burma are Chinese 2.5% and 1.5% Indians. 
Ten Myanmar Arts
Introduction to Myanmar's culture by Yangonow magazine.
Do's and Don'ts in Myanmar
Also known as "Lawka Niti" for those who visits Myanmar or who is dealing with Myanmar people should observe certain rules.
The Art of Burma
Burma Art gallery, a collection of Burmese art presented by Center for Burma Studies, Northern Illinois University.
Aungsan, Burmese, Karen and Suukyi fonts available for Mac and PC.
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Business & EconomySince the transition to a civilian government in 2011, Burma has begun an economic overhaul aimed at attracting foreign investment and reintegrating into the global economy. The government’s commitment to reform, and the subsequent easing of most Western sanctions, has begun to pay dividends. Burma’s abundant natural resources, young labor force, and proximity to Asia’s dynamic economies have attracted foreign investment, actually more an invasion of foreign interests and badly needed money.
Private airline based at Yangon International Airport.
A domestic and regional carrier for the tourism sector.
Myanmar Airways International
Offers international flights to Singapore and Bangkok.
Domestic airline in Myanmar.
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Image © Valeska Gehrmann
From an advertising:
Yangon, a city that balances tradition, culture and modernity, is one of the world's most inspiring destinations, dubbed "The Garden City of the East", its impressive lakes, pagodas and colonial remnants have been pivotal in attracting visitors and investors to Myanmar’s main entrance and seaport.
Travel and Tour Consumer Information
Destination Myanmar - Travel and Tour GuidesDiscover Burma:
Bagan, Inle Lake, Kyaikhtiyo, Mandalay, Mrauk U, Ngapali, Ngwe Saung, Yangon
Myanmar Tourism Promotion Board
Official Tourism information on Myanmar.
Myanmar site by the Ministry of Hotels and Tourism with many photo galleries.
Comprehensive Myanmar travel information by Myanmar tourism promotion.
Burma- Grace Under Pressure
A virtual journey through Burma.
A comprehensive guide to Myanmar.
Faces of Myanmar
Images of Myanmar's people and places by Valeska Gehrmann.
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Mandalay Technological University (MTU)
MTU is the second senior engineering university in Myanmar, located in Patheingyi Township, Mandalay.
University of Computer Studies, Yangon (UCSY)
UCSY offers both undergraduate and postgraduate degrees as well as diploma programs in computer studies.
University of Medicine 1 Yangon
Oldest medical school in Myanmar.
Yangon Technological University (YTU)
YTU was established in 1924 as the Department of Engineering under the University of Rangoon (Yangon).
University of Yangon
Oldest and most well-known university in Myanmar, located in Kamayut, Yangon. (no working website; May 2017)
Education in Burma (Myanmar)
Myanmar related research papers and projects on the web.
Environment & Nature
Terrestrial Ecoregions -- Tenasserim-South Thailand semi-evergreen rain forests
Information by World Wildlife Fund about this mountainous ecoregion of the southern portion of the Tenasserim Range, which separates Thailand and Myanmar.
Documents on Burma's history at Online Burma Library.
History of Myanmar
Myanma History by Myanmar Travel Information.
Timeline, Rulers, Heroes, Prehistoric Caves, Pondaung man, 4 million Pagodas by myanmars.net.
Myanmar and Mon History
Online Burma/Myanmar Library
Comprehensive background information on Burma/Myanmar with classified and annotated links to thousands of full text documents about Burma.
Wikipedia: History of Myanmar
Wikipedia articles about Myanmar's history.
About the Karen People
The Karens, pronounced (Ka-ran), are an indigenous people to the southeast Asian countries of Thailand and Myanmar.
Behind Karen lines
Article about the Karens' bitter war against the Burmese junta.
The Mon People
Information Home Page about the endangered Mon People, the earliest known inhabitants of lower Burma
The official home of Shan Democratic Union and Shan Human Rights.
Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation (UNPO)
UNPO information on the Shan, Karenni, and Mon people of Burma.
Sources and additional Information on Myanmar
Amnesty International Myanmar
Amnesty International Report about Myanmar.
BBC Myanmar profile
Myanmar country profile.
The FAO Country Programming Framework Myanmar.
Global business knowledge portal.
Human Rights Watch: Myanmar
Background briefings on human rights in Myanmar.
The Heritage Foundation: Burma
Index of Economic Freedom.
Reporters without borders - Burma
Press freedom report.
Trade data and economic complexity indicators.
Site provides an overview of its work to save children's lives, protect their health, provide them with educational opportunities and safe drinking water, and protect them from harm.
Wikipedia entry for Myanmar.
The World Factbook -- Burma
Other Countries in Southeast Asia
Brunei | Cambodia | East Timor | Indonesia | Laos | Malaysia | Philippines | Singapore | Thailand | Vietnam
Major Cities in Southeast Asia
Bandar Seri Begawan, Bandung, Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Jakarta, Johor Bahru, Kuala Lumpur, Mandalay, Manila, Medan, Naypyidaw, Phnom Penh, Singapore, Surabaya, Vientiane, Yangon
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