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___ Sudan

A virtual guide to the largest country in Africa. Get an overview of Sudan's art, culture, people, environment, geography, history, economy and its government.
Beside a country profile with facts and figures, this page offers maps, statistics, weather information, and links to sources that provide you with information about this African nation, e.g.: official web sites of Sudan, addresses of Sudan`s and foreign embassies, domestic airlines, local news, and more.


Republic of the Sudan

Country Profile

Sudan Flag
Flag of Sudan

With the Independence in 1956 problems began for the new republic almost immediately, in the shape of conflict between north and south. Carefully isolated from one another under British rule, the vast cultural differences between these two regions now escalated rapidly, and civil war was imminent.
A military coup, led by General Ibrahim Abboud, overthrew the government in 1958. Parliament was dismissed and martial law was declared, with Abboud as self-proclaimed Prime Minister.
Another coup in 1969, led this time by Colonel Jafaar Mohammed al-Nimeiry, set up government under a revolutionary council. Nimeiry became the Sudan's first elected President in 1972, and signed the Addis Ababa agreement, in an attempt to end strife between north and south. Uneasy peace was maintained for almost a decade and in 1983, Nimeiry was re-elected for a third term of office. His policies for economic recovery were ineffective, however, and unrest grew once more, resulting in Nimeiry's deposition in a bloodless coup in April 1985.

A year of military rule followed, before the rise of a new Mahdi. This was Sadiq al-Mahdi, the great-grandson of Mohammed Ahmad, but, despite many lofty promises of democracy, the new government proved weak and al-Mahdi was deposed in 1989.

His replacement was Lt. General Omar Hassan Ahmed al-Bashir, and Sudan was ruled by a 15-member Revolutionary Council. Throughout the 1990s, conditions have deteriorated in the Sudan. Non-Muslim rebels in the south, known as the Sudanese People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) are led by John Garang, a member of the southern Dinka tribe. The war between government and rebels continues, and many of the Sudanese people are displaced refugees, while many others are faced with economic ruin and the threat of starvation.

The northern opposition under the umbrella of the "National Democratic Alliance" (NDA), including the SPLM, had also took up arms against al-Bashir rule and occupied territories in eastern Sudan and northern Blue Nile.

In January 2005 the Sudan government has signed a preliminary peace agreement with the main opposition umbrella group, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years, ater which, a referendum for independence is scheduled to be held.
A separate conflict, which broke out in the western region of Darfur in 2003, has displaced nearly 2 million people and caused an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 deaths.
(Source: ArabNet and others)

border countries: Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Libya, Uganda

Sudan is a member state of the League of Arab States
where in Africa is Sudan?

Official Name:
Jumhuriyat as-Sudan
short form: As-Sudan
int'l long form: Sudan
int'l short form: Republic of the Sudan
former: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan

ISO Country Code: sd

Country Calling Code: +249

Capital City: Khartoum (pop. 1.4 million)

Other Cities: Omdurman (2.1 million), Port Sudan (pop. 450 000), Kassala, Kosti,
Juba, the capital of southern region.

Type: Provisional Government established by the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed in January 2005.
Independence: 1 January 1956 (from the UK).

Location: North-eastern Africa, south of Egypt, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea.
Area: 2.5 million km² (965,255 sq. mi.); North and South Sudan.
Terrain: Generally flat with mountains in east and west. The southern regions are inundated during the annual floods of the Nile River system.

Climate: Desert and savanna in the north and central regions and tropical in the south.

Nationality: Sudanese
Population: 31 million (2008; incl. South Sudan)
Ethnic Groups: black 52%, Arab 39%, Bija tribes 6%.
Religions: Sunni Islam (official), indigenous beliefs in southern Sudan.
Languages: Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, English, tribal languages.
Literacy: 50% (est)

Natural resources: Petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, hydropower.

Agriculture products: Cotton, groundnuts, sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca), mangos, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame; sheep, livestock.

Industries: Oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly.

Exports partners: Japan 49.6%, China 32%, Saudi Arabia 3.1% (2006)
Export goods: Oil and petroleum products; cotton, sesame, livestock, groundnuts, gum arabic, sugar.

Imports partners: China 18.2%, Saudi Arabia 9.2%, UAE 5.8%, Egypt 5.3%, Germany 5.2%, India 4.6%, France 4.1% (2006)
Import goods: Foodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles, wheat.

Currency: Sudanese Pound (SDG), 1 Pound=100 Piaster (or qirush) replaces the Sudanese Dinar (SDD);

Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

Official Sites of Sudan

Official website of the Presidential Palace.

Council of Ministers
Government site (in Arabic).

Ministry of the Federal Government
Government web site (in Arabic).

Sudan Ministry Of Foreign Affairs
The official site of the ministry (in Arabic).

 Sudan Government
Sudan's National Government Bodies and Ministries.

Diplomatic Missions
Botschaft der Republik Sudan
Sudan embassy in Germany (in German and Arabic).
Embassy of the Republic of the Sudan
Washington, USA
Embassy of the Republic of the Sudan London
Sudan's embassy in the UK.

Central Bureau of Statistics
Statistical figures (in Arabic and English)


profile Map of Sudan
Political Map of Sudan.
profile Administrative Map of Sudan
Map showing the states of Sudan.
profile Topographic Map of Sudan
Map showing the topographical features of Sudan.

Google Earth Google Earth Sudan
Searchable map/satellite view of Sudan.
Google Earth Google Earth Khartoum
Searchable map/satellite view of Sudan's capital city.
Google Earth Google Earth Port Sudan
Searchable map/satellite view of Sudan's major port.
Google Earth Google Earth Abyei
Searchable map/satellite view of the disputed town in Abyei region.
Google Earth Google Earth Juba
Searchable map/satellite view of South Sudan's capital.

Map of Northern Africa and the Middle East
Political Map of of North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East.
Political Map of Africa
The 54 countries of Africa.
Map of Africa
A Relief Map of Africa.

Sudan News

At Rayaam
Sudanese daily newspaper (in Arabic)
Daily news (in Arabic)
The Juba Post
South Sudan's Independent Newspaper.

Latest News From Sudan At Sudan.Net
Sudan news from various newswires and other news sources.
News and views information site on Sudan.

International News Sources
IRINnews: Sudan
News provided by UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.
Yahoo! News Full Coverage-Sudan
Press agencies news on Sudan.

Sudanese Radio & TV Corporation
The state-run Sudan National Broadcasting Corporation (SNBC)

Miraya FM
Private radio operated by UN mission, broadcasts from Juba the southern capital.


Arts & Culture

Shibrain Art Centre
Sudan's first art and design gallery, Khartoum.


Business & Economy

Bank of Sudan
The Central Bank of Sudan
Bank of Khartoum
Biggest Bank in Sudan.

Sudan Invest
The Investment Authority is responsible for setting up advertising and publicity campaigns for investment in Sudan.

Sudanese Petroleum Corporation
SPC controls oil and gas operations in Sudan.

Sudanese Products
Gum Arabic Company
The largest exporter of Gum Arabic in the world.
Kenana Sugar Company
Cane Sugar Estate and Factory, the largest single integrated producer of white sugar in the world.

Destination Sudan - Travel and Tour Guides

Discover Sudan: accommodation, hotels, events, tourism, and more.
Provides some tourism and travel information.

Michael's Sudan Page
Private page about Sudan.

Travel and Tour Consumer Information


Ahfad University for Women
A private, non-sectarian university for women located in Omdurman, Sudan, founded in 1966.
Sudan University Of Science And Technology
Largest institution of technology in Sudan.
University of Gezira
Information about the University (ARABIC).
University of Khartoum
Founded in 1902 as Gordon Memorial College.

Environment & Nature

Current issues:
Inadequate supplies of potable water;
Soil erosion; desertification; periodic drought.
Wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting;

Aquastat: Sudan
FAO's Information System on Water and Agriculture in Sudan.


Exploring Nubia
The Archaeology, History & Culture of Nubia and northern Sudan.

The earliest kingdoms and civilisations south of the Sahara.

Who are the Nubians?
Site about Ancient Nubia.

History of Sudan
Wikipedia entry about Sudan's history.


Sudan Home
Sudan portal site.
Sudan Online
Sudan Online News and Information Center.
Sudan Page@Sudan.Net
Sudan Information Page.

Additional Information about Sudan

Sudan - Darfur conflicts related information
Reuters AlertNet - Sudan conflict
BBC News Country Profile: Sudan
Situation of human rights in the Darfur region of the Sudan
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on Darfur region.
Human Rights Watch: Sudan
Ongoing Crimes Call for ICC Referral and Greater International Protection.

Sudan Info
African Studies Sudan Page
Africa South of Sahara (Karen Fung) Sudan
Open Directory Project: Sudan
United Nations Development Programmeme Sudan
UN Sudan Information Gateway
Wikipedia: Sudan
The World Factbook -- Sudan
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Actually, there are more than five colors,

Baron de Coubertin would have loved to use them all.

Why is it, that Gay and Lesbian people still are victims of persecution, harassment, and assaults occasioning actual bodily harm or worse?
Our world would be much poorer and colder without the creativity and ingenuity of the colorful LGBT* culture.
So, get up, stand up, and don't let it happen again and again and again.

Nature made sure, that all men are able to love each other without distinction of gender. This ability empowers humans to care for and to help each other. Natures gift simply secures the survival of the species.
But in some societies this natural law has been neglected by religions, governments and other interest groups in favour for better controllable straight-laced communities.

But if you know what life is worth, You will look for yours on earth
(lyrics from the song Get Up, Stand Up)
Bob Marley

* LGBT - acronym for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender

Declaration of Human Rights

Article I
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Article 2
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.