Continents Africa Sudan
A virtual guide to the formerly largest country in Africa. Sudan was separated in 2011 into Northern Sudan, officially the Republic of the Sudan, with a predominantly Arab population and South Sudan, formerly the southern part of Sudan, now officially the Republic of South Sudan, with a majority population of people with a Black African heritage.
Flag of Sudan
The country is situated in north-eastern Africa, between Egypt to the north and Eritrea, bordering the Red Sea in north east. It is also bordered by Libya in north west, by Chad in west, by the Central African Republic in south west, by South Sudan in south and by Ethiopia in south east, and it shares maritime borders with Saudi Arabia.
Sudan occupies an area of now 1,886,068 km², it is the 16th largest country in the world, more than five times the size of Germany, or slightly less than one-fifth the size of the USA.
Sudan has a population of 40 million people (in 2015 est.), Capital city is Khartoum, largest city is Omdurman, Sudan's main port is Port Sudan. Spoken languages are Sudanese Arabic, the predominant language in the country, and Beja (Bedawi) spoken along the Red Sea.
Republic of the Sudan
With the Independence in 1956 problems began for the new republic almost immediately, in the shape of conflict between north and south. Carefully isolated from one another under British rule, the vast cultural differences between these two regions now escalated rapidly, and civil war was imminent.
A military coup, led by General Ibrahim Abboud, overthrew the government in 1958. Parliament was dismissed and martial law was declared, with Abboud as self-proclaimed Prime Minister.
Another coup in 1969, led this time by Colonel Jafaar Mohammed al-Nimeiry, set up government under a revolutionary council. Nimeiry became the Sudan's first elected President in 1972, and signed the Addis Ababa agreement, in an attempt to end strife between north and south. Uneasy peace was maintained for almost a decade and in 1983, Nimeiry was re-elected for a third term of office. His policies for economic recovery were ineffective, however, and unrest grew once more, resulting in Nimeiry's deposition in a bloodless coup in April 1985.
A year of military rule followed, before the rise of a new Mahdi. This was Sadiq al-Mahdi, the great-grandson of Mohammed Ahmad, but, despite many lofty promises of democracy, the new government proved weak and al-Mahdi was deposed in 1989.
His replacement was Lt. General Omar Hassan Ahmed al-Bashir, and Sudan was ruled by a 15-member Revolutionary Council. Throughout the 1990s, conditions have deteriorated in the Sudan. Non-Muslim rebels in the south, known as the Sudanese People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) are led by John Garang, a member of the southern Dinka tribe. The war between government and rebels continues, and many of the Sudanese people are displaced refugees, while many others are faced with economic ruin and the threat of starvation.
The northern opposition under the umbrella of the "National Democratic Alliance" (NDA), including the SPLM, had also took up arms against al-Bashir rule and occupied territories in eastern Sudan and northern Blue Nile.
In January 2005 the Sudan government has signed a preliminary peace agreement with the main opposition umbrella group, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years, ater which, a referendum for independence is scheduled to be held.
A separate conflict, which broke out in the western region of Darfur in 2003, has displaced nearly 2 million people and caused an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 deaths.
(Source: ArabNet and others)
Sudan is a member state of the League of Arab States
short form: As-Sudan
int'l long form: Sudan
int'l short form: Republic of the Sudan
former: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
ISO Country Code: sd
Country Calling Code: +249
Capital City: Khartoum (pop. 1.4 million)
Other Cities: Omdurman (2.1 million), Port Sudan (pop. 450 000), Kassala, Kosti,
Juba, the capital of southern region.
Type: Provisional Government established by the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed in January 2005.
Independence: 1 January 1956 (from the UK).
Location: North-eastern Africa, south of Egypt, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea.
Area: 2.5 million km² (965,255 sq. mi.); North and South Sudan.
Terrain: Generally flat with mountains in east and west. The southern regions are inundated during the annual floods of the Nile River system.
Climate: Desert and savanna in the north and central regions and tropical in the south.
Population: 40 million (in 2015)
Ethnic Groups: Sudanese Arab (approximately 70%), Fur, Beja, Nuba, and Fallata.
Religions: Sunni Islam (official), small Christian minority.
Languages: Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, Fur, English.
Literacy: 76% (est)
Natural resources: Petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, hydropower.
Agriculture products: Cotton, groundnuts, sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca), mangos, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame; sheep, livestock.
Industries: Oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly.
Exports - commodities: gold; oil and petroleum products; cotton, sesame, livestock, peanuts, gum Arabic, sugar.
Exports - partners: UAE 32%, China 16.2%, Saudi Arabia 15.5%, Australia 4.7%, India 4.2% (2015)
Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines, chemicals, textiles, wheat.
Imports - partners: China 26.4%, UAE 10.1%, India 9.1%, Egypt 5.6%, Turkey 4.7%, Saudi Arabia 4.4% (2015)
Currency: Sudanese Pound (SDG), 1 Pound=100 Piaster (or qirush) replaces the Sudanese Dinar (SDD);
Note: External links will open in a new browser window.
Official Sites of SudanPresidency
Official website of Omar Al-Bashir.
Council of Ministers
Government site (in Arabic).
Ministry of the Federal Government
Government web site (in Arabic).
Sudan Ministry Of Foreign Affairs
The official site of the ministry (in Arabic).
Sudan's National Government Bodies and Ministries.
Botschaft der Republik Sudan
Sudan embassy in Germany (in German and Arabic).
Embassy of the Republic of the Sudan
Embassy of the Republic of the Sudan London
Sudan's embassy in the UK.
Central Bureau of Statistics
Statistical figures (in Arabic and English)
Map of Sudan
Political Map of Sudan.
Administrative Map of Sudan
Map showing the states of Sudan.
Topographic Map of Sudan
Map showing the topographical features of Sudan.
Google Earth Sudan
Searchable map/satellite view of Sudan.
Google Earth Khartoum
Searchable map/satellite view of Sudan's capital city.
Google Earth Port Sudan
Searchable map/satellite view of Sudan's major port.
Google Earth Abyei
Searchable map/satellite view of the disputed town in Abyei region.
Google Earth Juba
Searchable map/satellite view of South Sudan's capital.
Map of Northern Africa and the Middle East
Political Map of of North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East.
Political Map of Africa
The 54 countries of Africa.
Map of Africa
A Relief Map of Africa.
Sudan ranks deep down at the bottom in the Reporters Without Borders annual press freedom index. Sudanese security (NISS) confiscates routinely copies of Sudanese newspapers.
Sudanese Media Centre
Believed to be run by the National Intelligence and Security Services (NISS).
A major Khartoum based Sudanese newspaper.
Oldest newspaper in Sudan (dead link)
Daily news (dead link)
The Juba Post
South Sudan's Independent Newspaper.
Scattered news from Sudan.
International News Sources
News and views information site on Sudan (based in Paris).
News provided by UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.
Sudanese Radio & TV Corporation
The state-run Sudan National Broadcasting Corporation (SNBC)
Private radio operated by UN mission, broadcasts from Juba the southern capital.
Bookmark/share this page
Arts & Culture
Shibrain Art Centre
Sudan's first art and design gallery, Khartoum.
Business & Economy
Bank of Sudan
The Central Bank of Sudan
Bank of Khartoum
Biggest Bank in Sudan.
The Investment Authority is responsible for setting up advertising and publicity campaigns for investment in Sudan.
Sudanese Petroleum Corporation
SPC controls oil and gas operations in Sudan.
Gum Arabic Company
The largest exporter of Gum Arabic in the world.
Kenana Sugar Company
Cane Sugar Estate and Factory, the largest single integrated producer of white sugar in the world.
Travel and Tour Consumer Information
Destination Sudan - Travel and Tour GuidesDiscover Sudan: accommodation, hotels, events, tourism, and more.
Provides some tourism and travel information.
Michael's Sudan Page
Private page about Sudan.
EducationAhfad University for Women
A private, non-sectarian university for women located in Omdurman, Sudan, founded in 1966.
Sudan University Of Science And Technology
Largest institution of technology in Sudan.
University of Gezira
Information about the University (ARABIC).
University of Khartoum
Founded in 1902 as Gordon Memorial College.
Environment & NatureCurrent issues:
Inadequate supplies of potable water;
Soil erosion; desertification; periodic drought.
Wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting;
FAO's Information System on Water and Agriculture in Sudan.
The Archaeology, History & Culture of Nubia and northern Sudan.
The earliest kingdoms and civilisations south of the Sahara.
Who are the Nubians?
Site about Ancient Nubia.
History of Sudan
Wikipedia entry about Sudan's history.
Sudan portal site.
Sudan Online News and Information Center.
Sudan Information Page.
Additional Information about SudanSudan - Darfur conflicts related information
Reuters AlertNet - Sudan conflict
BBC News Country Profile: Sudan
Situation of human rights in the Darfur region of the Sudan
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on Darfur region.
Human Rights Watch: Sudan
Ongoing Crimes Call for ICC Referral and Greater International Protection.
African Studies Sudan Page
Africa South of Sahara (Karen Fung) Sudan
Open Directory Project: Sudan
United Nations Development Programmeme Sudan
UN Sudan Information Gateway
The World Factbook -- Sudan
Other Countries of Northern Africa
Algeria | Egypt | Libya | Morocco | Sudan | Tunisia | Western Sahara
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