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A virtual guide to Romania, a country in East Central Europe bordering on the Black Sea in south east, it borders Bulgaria, Hungary, Moldova, Serbia and Ukraine, and it shares a maritime border with Turkey.
Soviet occupation following World War II led to the formation of a communist "peoples republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king.
The decades-long rule of President Nicolae CEAUSESCU became increasingly draconian through the 1980s. He was overthrown and executed in late 1989.
Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power.
Much economic restructuring remains to be carried out before Romania can achieve its hope of joining the EU.
(Source: CIA - The World Factbook)
Official Name: Romania
ISO Country Code: ro
Local Time = UTC +2h (Summer +3h)
Actual Time: Sat-Feb-25 22:21
Country Calling Code: +40
Capital City: Bucuresti (Bucharest; pop. 2 million)
Other Cities: Iasi (350 000), Constanta (344 000), Timisoara (327 000), Cluj-Napoca (334 000), Galati (331 000), Brasov (316 000)
Constitution: 8 December 1991, amended by referendum October 2003.
Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine.
Area: 238,391 km² (92,043 sq. mi.).
Terrain: Consists mainly of rolling, fertile plains; hilly in the eastern regions of the middle Danube basin; and major mountain ranges running north and west in the center of the country, which collectively are known as the Carpathians.
Climate: Temperate-continental, four seasons, cold winters with frequent snow; sunny summers.
Population: 19 million (2014)
Ethnic groups: Romanians 88.6%; Hungarians (including Szecklers) 6.5%; Roma (Gypsies) 3.2%; other ethnic groups -1.4%.
Religions: Eastern Orthodox - 86.7%; Protestant - 5.2%; Roman-Catholic - 4.7%; Romanian Greek-Catholic - 0.9%, Evangelical - 0.1%; Unitarian - 0.3%; other religions - 0.4%.
Languages: Romanian (official), Minority languages: Hungarian, German, Chinese.
Natural resources: Petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower.
Agriculture products: Wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep.
Industries: Textiles and footwear, light machinery and auto assembly, mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining.
Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, other manufactured goods, agricultural products and foodstuffs, metals and metal products, chemicals, minerals and fuels, raw materials
Exports - partners: Germany 19.8%, Italy 12.5%, France 6.8%, Hungary 5.4%, UK 4.4% (2015)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, other manufactured goods, chemicals, agricultural products and foodstuffs, fuels and minerals, metals and metal products, raw materials
Imports - partners: Germany 19.8%, Italy 10.9%, Hungary 8%, France 5.6%, Poland 4.9%, China 4.6%, Netherlands 4% (2015)
Currency: Leu (RON)
Note: External links will open in a new browser window.
Official Sites of Romania
The Romanian Presidency. (Romanian only)
The Government of Romania.
The Romanian Senate.
Ministerul Afacerilor Externe (MAE)
Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Romanian Mission to United Nations
Permanent Mission of Romania to the UN - New York.
Embassy of Romania
Romanian Diplomatic Missions Abroad
Address list of Romanian Diplomatic Missions Abroad.
Foreign Diplomatic Missions in Romania
Foreign Diplomatic Missions in Romania.
C.N. Institutul National de Meteorologie Hidrologie si Gospodarire a Apelor (INMH)
National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology.
Map of Romania
Political Map of Romania.
Google Earth Romania
Searchable map and satellite view of Romania.
Google Earth Bucharest
Searchable map and satellite view of Romania's capital.
Google Earth Constanta
Searchable map and satellite view of Constanta.
Map of the Balkan Peninsula
Political Map of the Balkans.
Map of Central and Eastern Europe
Political Map of Europe.
Map of Europe
Political Map of Europe.
Image: Silvia Nichita
Romanian Press Agency.
National News (Romanian).
Romanian News (Romanian).
Romanian daily (Romanian).
Romanian newspaper (in Romanian).
Ziarul de Iasi
National news (Romanian).
National and international news (Romanian).
Daily with an English Version.
Daily English language newspaper.
Bucharest Business Week
Business, Finance and National News (in Romanian).
Televiziunea Româna - TVR
Romania 1 and TVR 2, state-owned (in Romanian).
State-owned radio station, operates national and regional networks.
Radio Romania International
Part of Radio Romania.
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Arts & Culture
The National Museum of Art of Romania
National Museum of Art in Bucharest.
Romanian Cultural Resources
Culture in Romania - Romanian Cultural Resources.
Romanian English Dictionary
Online Dictionary Romanian to English and vice versa.
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Business & Economy
National Bank of Romania
The Central Bank of Romania.
Bucharest Stock Exchange
BSE's official website.
Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Romania and Bucharest
Official website of the chamber.
Trade Point Bucuresti
Trade Point Bucharest
Romanian low-cost airline.
TAROM is the flag carrier airline of Romania.
Aeroportul International Henri Coanda
Bucharest Henri Coanda International Airport, busiest airport in Romania.
Caile Ferate Romane - CFR
Romanian State Railway.
Căile Ferate Române
Romanian passenger trains.
Grup Feroviar Român - GFR
GFR is the largest private railway company in Romania.
Photo by Victor Petcu
Travel and Tour Consumer Information
Destination Romania - Travel and Tour Guides
Castles and Palaces: Bran Castle, Corvin Castle, Cotroceni Palace, Mogoșoaia Palace, Palace of Culture, Palace of the Parliament, Pelișor Castle, Peleș Castle, Poenari Castle;
Monasteries and Churches:
Biserica Neagră (Black Church), Cozia Monastery, Moldovița Monastery, Romanian Patriarchal Cathedral, Putna Monastery, Stavropoleos Monastery, Timișoara Orthodox Cathedral, Voroneț Monastery,
Accommodation, hotels, attractions, festivals, events, tourist boards, biking, skiing, hiking, climbing, cruising, diving, tours and much more.
The Official Tourism Site of Romania by the National Authority for Tourism.
Charming Romanian tourism promotion.
Romanian Travel Guide
Welcome to Romania.
Tourist guide to Bucharest, Romania's capital city.
Alexandru Ioan Cuza University
Public university located in Iași, founded in 1860.
Ion Mincu - Institute of Architecture - IMUAU
University of Architecture and Urbanism, Bucharest.
University of Bacău
Public university in Bacău.
University of Bucharest
Public university founded in 1864.
Universitatea de Nord
A multidisciplinary institution, Baia Mare.
Universitatea de Vest,
The University of the West in Timisoara was founded in 1962.
Image: Marian Nedelcu
Environment & Nature
Ministry of Environment and Waters Management
Official website of the ministry (in Romanian).
National Institute of Research and Development for Earth Physics
NIEP provides earthquake information for current and past earthquakes, hazards and preparedness information, and education resources for teachers and students.
Garda Nationala de Mediu
National institute for environment protection (in Romanian).
Terra Mileniul III
NGO for the protection of the environment (in Romanian).
History of Romanians
History of Romania and the Romanians, by Ion Calafeteanu.
The Romanian History Index (WWW Virtual Library )
Internet resources on the History of Romania.
Open Directory Project: Romania
Additional Information about Romania
BBC Country Profile: Romania
Other Countries of Eastern Europe:
Belarus | Bulgaria | Czech Republic | Hungary | Moldova
Poland | Russian Federation | Ukraine
Other countries in the Balkan region:
Albania | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Bulgaria | Croatia | Greece | Macedonia, Rep. of | Montenegro | Turkey
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