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Georgia | Sak'art'velo

Country Profile

Georgia Flag
Flag of Georgia

Georgia was absorbed into the Russian Empire in the 19th century. Independent for three years (1918-1921) following the Russian revolution, it was forcibly incorporated into the USSR until the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991. Russian troops remain garrisoned at four military bases and as peacekeepers in the separatist regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia (but are scheduled to withdraw from two of the bases by July 2001).
Ethnic separation in Abkhazia and South Ossetia, poor governance, and Russian military bases deny the government effective control over the entirety of the state's internationally recognized territory.
Despite a badly degraded transportation network - brought on by ethnic conflict, criminal activities, and fuel shortages - the country continues to move toward a market economy and greater integration with Western institutions.
(Source: CIA - The World Factbook)

border countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russia, Turkey

Where in the world is Georgia?

Official Name:
int'l name: Georgia
former: Republic of Georgia
former: Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic.

ISO Country Code: ge
Actual Time: Wed-Mar-4  19:14
Local Time = UTC +3h
Daylight Saving Time (DST) March - October (UTC +4)

Country Calling Code: +995

Capital City: Tbilisi (pop 1 253 000)

Other Cities:
Batumi (Ajaria 137 100), Gori (70 000), Kutaisi (241 100), Rustavi (158 000), Sokhumi (Abkhazia)

Type: Republic.
Independence: 9 April, 1991, the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia declared independence from the U.S.S.R.
Constitution: 17 October, 1995.

Location: Southwestern Asia, South Caucasus, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia.
Area: 69,700 kmĀ² (26,911 sq. mi.). 20% of the total territory is not under Georgian government control.
Terrain: Mostly rugged and mountainous.

Climate: Generally moderate; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast with cold winters in the mountains.

Nationality: Noun and adjective--Georgian(s).
Population: 4.4 million (2011. Does not include Abkhazia or South Ossetia.)
Ethnic groups: Georgian 70.1%, Armenian 8.1%, Russian 6.3%, Azeri 5.7%, Ossetian 3%, Abkhaz 1.8%, other 5%. (1989 est.)
Religion: Main religion is Greek Orthodoxy (65%), other confessional groups include Shiite and Sunni Muslims (11%), Armenian Gregorians, Catholics, Baptists, Judaists.
Language: Georgian (official), Abkhaz also official language in Abkhazia.
Literacy: 99%.

Natural resources: Forests, hydropower, nonferrous metals, manganese, iron ore, copper, citrus fruits, tea, wine.

Agriculture products: Citrus, grapes, tea, hazelnuts, vegetables; livestock.

Industries: Steel, aircraft, machine tools, electrical appliances, mining (manganese and copper), chemicals, wood products, wine.

Currency: Lari (GEL) put into circulation in 1995.

Georgia in Figures
Georgia key statistical data.

Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

Official Sites of Georgia

Government of Georgia
Online access to Georgia government.

The Parliament of Georgia
A Guide to the Parliament of Georgia.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia is a governmental institution carrying out the state management and coordination of foreign relations of Georgia with foreign states and international organizations.

Diplomatic Missions
The Permanent Mission of Georgia to the United Nations
Georgia's representation to the UN.
Embassy of Georgia to the U.S.
Washington D.C.
Embassies and Consulates of Georgia
Addresslist of Georgian Embassies and Consulates.

Map of Georgia
Political Map of Georgia.
The map Georgia in PDF format (800KB)

Google Earth Google Earth Georgia
Searchable map and satellite view of Georgia.
Google Earth Google Earth Tbilisi
Searchable map and satellite view of Georgia's capital city.

profile Caucasus and Central Asia Map
Map of Central Asia and the Caucasus region.
profile Map of Western Asia
Map of Western Asia and the Middle East region.
profile Map of Asia
Reference Map of Asia. 


The Georgian Times
A daily newspaper.
Prime News Agency
Independent news gathering organisation.
Sarke Information Agency
Daily News from Georgia.

Internews Georgia
Proviodes non-governmental stations with the technical and journalistic skills they needed to defeat self-censorship and initiates advocacy campaigns when stations were threatened with closure.


Arts & Culture
Georgian Art Portal.
Georgian Culture
Site about Georgian art, architecture, theatre and cinema.
National Treasury of Georgia
Historical treasures.
League of Professionals
Rare forms & trends of modern Georgian Art
Old Tbilisi 2000
Photos of the unvarnished charm of old town - Tbilisi.
Tbilisi Opera and Ballet Theatre

Georgian Fonts
Fonts in Cyberspace - Georgia
Links to free Goergian computerfonts.


Business & Economy

National Bank of Georgia
Georgia's Central Bank.
Georgian Stock Exchange

GEPA - Georgian Export Promotion Agency

Georgian National Airlines
The airline is based in Tbilisi.
Georgian Airways
Georgia's national airline, based in Tbilisi.

Tbilisi International Airport
Main international airport in Georgia located north east of the capital Tbilisi.

Country Guides

General Information about Georgia
Country data, history, population, statistics, geography, and climate.

About Georgia
A guide to Georgia with Basic Data, History, Geography, and Traditions.

Hotels in Georgia
Find a Hotel in Georgia.

Travel and Tour Consumer Information
Travel Links
Top Travel Destinations
Maps of the World
International Airlines
Popular Country Pages

South Korea

Updated Country Profiles
New Zealand


Georgian Technical University
Tbilisi State University
The first University in the Caucasus, founded in 1918.

Environment & Nature

Caucasus Environmental NGO Network - CENN
CENN through its various projects acted as a voluntary effort to foster regional cooperation by means of improved communication among environmental organizations of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia (and partly Russia and Turkey).

Georgian Center for the Conservation of Wildlife, GCCW
Official website of the organization.

The mission of the NGO is to safeguard the biodiversity of Georgia and the South Caucasus, through conservation activities at national and local levels.

Sun and Earth
Organization "Sun and Earth" is nongovernmental, nonpolitical, non commercial ecological union.


History of Georgia
From Early Ancient Georgia until the period between 1946-1992.

History of the Abkhazia Conflict
Abkhazia Conflict
Background information about the Caucasus region conflict.
Information Concerning the Conflict in Abkhazia
Georgian's parlament information about the conflict.
The Republic of Abkhazia
The separatist regions of Abkhazia.
Georgians and Abkhazians - the Search for a Peace Settlement-Contents
An analysis of the Georgian-Abkhaz war of 1992-93 and an assessment of the possibilities for a peace settlement.


Georgia Net
A collection of Georgian resources on the net.
Georgia Development Gateway
Links to Georgia related web sites.
GeREs - Georgian Resources
Georgian Index.

Additional Information on Georgia

BBC News Country Profile: Georgia
Governments on the WWW: Georgia
Human Rights Watch: Georgia
Open Directory Project: Georgia
REENIC: Russian and East European Network Information Center: Georgia
The World Factbook -- Georgia

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Baron de Coubertin would have loved to use them all.

Why is it, that Gay and Lesbian people still are victims of persecution, harassment, and assaults occasioning actual bodily harm or worse?
Our world would be much poorer and colder without the creativity and ingenuity of the colorful LGBT* culture.
So, get up, stand up, and don't let it happen again and again and again.

Nature made sure, that all men are able to love each other without distinction of gender. This ability empowers humans to care for and to help each other. Natures gift simply secures the survival of the species.
But in some societies this natural law has been neglected by religions, governments and other interest groups in favour for better controllable straight-laced communities.

But if you know what life is worth, You will look for yours on earth
(lyrics from the song Get Up, Stand Up)
Bob Marley

* LGBT - acronym for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender

Declaration of Human Rights

Article I
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Article 2
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.