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___ Turkmenistan

A virtual guide to Turkmenistan. Get an overview of Turkmenistan's art, culture, people, environment, geography, history, economy and its government.
Beside a country profile with facts and figures, this page offers maps, statistics, weather information, and links to sources that provide you with information about this Central Asian nation, e.g.: official web sites of Turkmenistan, addresses of Turkmenistani and foreign embassies, domestic airlines, local news, city- and country guides with travel and tourism information about accomodation, tourist attractions, events and more.

Ertugrul Gazi Mosque in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan
Ertugrul Gazi Mosque in Ashgabat

Turkmenistan - Türkmenistan

Country Profile

Turkmenistan Flag
Flag of Turkmenistan

Annexed by Russia between 1865 and 1885, Turkmenistan became a Soviet republic in 1925.
It achieved its independence upon the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. President NIYAZOV retains absolute control over the country and opposition is not tolerated.
Extensive hydrocarbon/natural gas reserves could prove a boon to this underdeveloped country if extraction and delivery projects can be worked out.
(Source: CIA - The World Factbook)

border countries: Afghanistan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan
Where in Central Asia is Turkmenistan?

Official Name:
also known as Turkmenia

ISO Country Code: tm

Country Calling Code: +993

Capital City: Ashgabat (pop. 700 000)

Other Cities: Türkmenabat (2900 000), Dashoguz (166 000), Mary (125,000), Türkmenbashi (55 000)

Type: Republic, with a single-party system; the 'Democratic' Party of Turkmenistan, is the only one legally permitted.
Independence: 27 October 1991 (from USSR).
Constitution: 18 May 1992.

Location: central Asia, bordered by the Caspian Sea to the west.
Area: 488,100 kmĀ² (188,456 sq mi).
Terrain: Flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains in the south. The Kara Kum (Garagum) desert comprises 80% of the country's total area.

Climate: Subtropical desert.

Nationality: Turkmenistani
Population: 5.1 million (2012 est.)
Ethnic Groups: Turkmen 85%, Russians 7%, Uzbeks 5%, other 3%
Religions: Sunni Muslim
Languages: Turkmen. Russian is widely spoken.
Literacy: 98%

Natural resources: Oil, natural gas, coal, precious non-ferrous and rare metals, celestine, sulfur.

Agriculture products: Cotton, wheat, melons; livestock.

Industries: Natural gas, oil, petroleum products, textiles, food processing.

Currency: 1 Manat = 100 Tenesi (TMM)

(Source: Embassy of Turkmenistan in the US and others)

Turkmenistan in Figures
Turkmenistan key statistical data.

Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

Official Sites of Turkmenistan

Government of Turkmenistan
Official website of Turkmenistan's government, with the electronic newspaper "Turkmenistan: the golden age".

Diplomatic Missions
Embassy of Turkmenistan
Washington, D.C.


Map of Turkmenistan
Political Map of Turkmenistan.
Administrative Map of Turkmenistan
Map of Administrative Divisions of Turkmenistan.
Google Earth Google Earth Turkmenistan
Searchable map and satellite view Turkmenistan.
Google Earth Google Earth Ashgabat
Searchable map and satellite view of Turkmenistan's capital city.

profile Caucasus and Central Asia Map
Map of Central Asia and the Caucasus region.
profile Map of Asia
Reference Map of Asia.


Turkmenistan News

The Times of Central Asia
Turkmenistan news.
More Turkmenistan news.
Local news (Russian/English)

News in Turkmen language
The Turkmen News
Turkmen daily news magazine.

International Newssources
News Central Asia
US based news agency focused at the Greater Central Asian region.
Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty Turkmen Service
Turkmenistan related news by Radio Free Europe. Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan News.

Google News Search: Turkmenistan
Find news from Turkmenistan.


Arts & Culture

Legendary Turkmen Horses.
Turkmen Rugs and Carpets
Turkmen applied art.

Chronicles of Turkmenistan
Magazine of the "Turkmen Initiative for Human Rights".

The Book of the Soul, written by Saparmurat Niyazov, late president-for-life of Turkmenistan (1990-2006). (An official government website)


Business & Economy

Turkmenistan - Analytic magazine
The monthly magazine provides some business information.

Destination Turkmenistan - Travel and Tour Guides

Discover Turkmenistan: accommodation, hotels, attractions, festivals, events, tourist boards, biking, skiing, hiking, climbing, cruising, diving, tours and much more.

Ashgabat Gazette
A foreigners guide to Turkmenistan.
Turkmenistan Chaihana
Made to spread information about Turkmenistan, maintained by former Turkmenistan Peace Corps volunteer Greg Lastowka.
Turkmen International
A guide to Turkmenistans culture.

Hotels in Turkmenistan
Find a Hotel in Turkmenistan.

Travel and Tour Consumer Information


Ashgabat International School
Information about the private non-profit institution.

Turkmen State University
Ashgabat, the university does not maintain a homepage.

Environment & Nature

Current issues:
Contamination of soil and groundwater with agricultural chemicals, pesticides; salination, desertification.
Water logging of soil due to poor irrigation methods;
Caspian Sea pollution;
Diversion of a large share of the flow of the Amu Darya into irrigation contributes to that river's inability to replenish the Aral Sea.

UNDP in Turkmenistan
The United Nations Development Programme supports the Government in achieving environmental goals through assistance in developing environmental policies and in promoting best practices in water and sanitation.


History of Turkmenistan
Culture, Traditions, and History of Turkmenistan
Overview on Turkmenistans history.


Additional Information about Turkmenistan

BBC News Country Profile: Turkmenistan
Eurasianet: Turkmenistan
Open Directory Project: : Turkmenistan
REENIC: Turkmenistan
Wikipedia: Turkmenistan
The World Factbook -- Turkmenistan

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Other Countries in South-Central Asia:
Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan

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Actually, there are more than five colors,

Baron de Coubertin would have loved to use them all.

Why is it, that Gay and Lesbian people still are victims of persecution, harassment, and assaults occasioning actual bodily harm or worse?
Our world would be much poorer and colder without the creativity and ingenuity of the colorful LGBT* culture.
So, get up, stand up, and don't let it happen again and again and again.

Nature made sure, that all men are able to love each other without distinction of gender. This ability empowers humans to care for and to help each other. Natures gift simply secures the survival of the species.
But in some societies this natural law has been neglected by religions, governments and other interest groups in favour for better controllable straight-laced communities.

But if you know what life is worth, You will look for yours on earth
(lyrics from the song Get Up, Stand Up)
Bob Marley

* LGBT - acronym for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender

Declaration of Human Rights

Article I
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Article 2
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.