Canadian Provinces and Territories
Flag of Canada
The country is bordered by Alaska (USA) in west, and by 12 US states of the continental United States in south, Canada shares maritime borders with Greenland (an autonomous territory of Denmark) and Saint Pierre and Miquelon, an island which belongs to France.
Canada's landscape offers many aspects, it is divided into multiple geographical regions. The Canadian Shield, which is the largest geographical area, encompasses half the country and centers on Hudson Bay. The southeastern region of Canada is dominated by lowlands, bordered by the Great Lakes: Lake Michigan, Lake Superior, Lake Erie, and Lake Ontario.
The country occupies an area of 9,984,670 km², making it the largest country in the Western Hemisphere.
35 million people (in 2015) live in the country, this is about 10% of the population of neighboring USA. Capital city is Ottawa, largest city is Toronto, spoken languages are English and French.
Canada | Canadá | Kanada
Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown.
The vast land in Northern North America is rich of natural resources, home to 41 national parks and hundreds of provincial parks, Canada is a natural playground!
The United Nations ranked Canada one of the best country in the world in which to live. Canada is globally recognized for its outstanding quality of life, stable, progressive political environment and one of the healthiest economies in the world. Economically and technologically the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across an unfortified border.
border countries: United States, Greenland
related countries: France, United Kingdom
ISO Country Code: ca
Halifax, : Fri-Mar-24 02:09
Local Time = UTC -4h
Montreal, Toronto, Ottawa, Iqaluit: Fri-Mar-24 01:09
Local Time = UTC -5h
Winnipeg: Fri-Mar-24 00:09
Local Time = UTC -6h
Calgary, Yellowknife: Thu-Mar-23 23:09
Local Time = UTC -7h
Vancouver: Thu-Mar-23 22:09
Local Time = UTC -8h
Map of Canada's time zone anomalies.
Country Calling Code: +1
Capital City: Ottawa (pop. 1 million)
Toronto (4.5 million), Montreal (3.4 million), Vancouver (2.0 million), Calgary (1 million), Quebec (500.000)
Type: Confederation with parliamentary democracy.
Independence:1 July 1867 (from the UK).
Constitution: The amended British North America Act of 1867 patriated to Canada on
17 April 1982, Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and unwritten custom. (Constitution Act of 1982)
Location: Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north.
Area: 9.9 million km² (3.8 million sq. mi.); second-largest country in the world.
Terrain: as vast as the country is, it offers many different landscapes, mountains, prairies, deserts, artic tundra, glaciers, valleys, foothills, rivers and lakes.
Climate: Varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north.
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Canadian(s).
Population: 35 million (2015)
GNI per capita PPP: $ 34 444 (year)
Ethnic groups: British descent (28%), French descent (23%), Italian descent (3%), aboriginal peoples (2%), plus significant minorities of German, Ukrainian, Dutch, Greek, Polish and Chinese.
Religions: Religion: Catholic (45%), Protestant (36%) and minorities from most of the world's major religions.
Languages: English 59.3% (official), French 23.2% (official), and 53 native languages.
Literacy: 97-99% of population aged 15 and over.
Natural resources: Iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower.
Agriculture products: Wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish.
Industries: Transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products; wood and paper products; fish products, petroleum and natural gas.
Exports - commodities: motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum
Exports partners: USA 76.7% (2015)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods
Imports partners: USA 53.1%, China 12.2%, Mexico 5.8% (2015)
Currency: Canadian Dollar (CAD)
Canada in numbers
Canada key statistical figures.
Image: © Saffron Blaze
Canada's political system is a federal parliamentary representative democracy with a formal constitutional monarchy. Chief of State is the British monarch (Queen Elizabeth II) represented by the Governor General, who is appointed by the monarch. Theoretically, the executive power lies with the monarch, but in practice, the monarch and his representative are apolitical and predominantly perform ceremonial functions. Head of Government is the Canadian Prime Minister (Justin Trudeau). The Parliament of Canada consists of three parts, the sovereign, represented by the Governor-General of Canada, the Senate (Upper House), and the House of Commons.
Official Sites of Canada
Note: External links will open in a new browser window.
Government of Canada
The Official Canada Government Site.
Represents The Queen (Queen Elizabeth II) who is the Head of State.
Government of Canada Departments and Agencies
Index of Government of Canada Departments, Agencies, Crown Corporations, Special Operating Agencies and various affiliated organizations.
Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade
Homepage of the Department.
Permanent Mission of Canada to the United Nations
Information about Canada's Permanent Mission to the UN.
Embassy of Canada in Washington.
Consulate General of Canada in New York
Canadian Embassies and Missions worldwide
Address List of Canadian Diplomatic Missions Abnroad.
Foreign Diplomatic Missions in Canada
Address List of Foreign Diplomatic Missions accredited to Canada.
Canada's International Gateway
Links to government services, information and resources, for citizens of other countries.
Canadian statistics and more.
Official Canadian Weather.
Map of Canada
Administrative Map of Canada with international borders,
provincial boundaries, provincial capitals, major cities, and major airports.
Google Earth Map Canada
Searchable map and satellite view of Canada.
Google Earth Map Ottawa
Searchable map and satellite view of Canada's capital city.
Google Earth Map Calgary
Searchable map and satellite view of Calgary City.
Google Earth Map Montreal
Searchable map and satellite view of Canada's second largest city.
Google Earth Map Quebec
Searchable map and satellite view of Quebec City.
Google Earth Map Toronto
Searchable map and satellite view of Canada's largest city.
Google Earth Map Vancouver
Searchable map and satellite view of Canada's third largest city.
Map of Canada
Interactive political map of Canada.
Canada Relief map
Interactive relief map of Canada.
Canadian Geographic Enterprises
Canada à la carte - various theme maps by the Canadian Geographic Magazine.
The National Atlas of Canada
Geography and Maps of Canada
Natural Hazards of Canada
Depicts the locations, types and magnitudes of significant natural disasters that have affected Canada.
Topographic Maps of Canada
Clickable maps to Canada's topography.
Canadian Geographical Names
Interactive and authoritative source of over 350 000 official and formerly official geographical names in Canada.
News from Canada
Canadian News Agency.
Canadian Newspaper Association
With "The Ultimate Guide to (Canadian) Newspapers".
The Canadian Press
Canada's national news and photo wire.
Canada news, sports, entertainment.
The Globe and Mail
News, information, commentary and interactive discussion
from Canada and around the world.
Politics Watch - Canada's Political Portal
Provides political background information.
The Toronto Star
National and International News.
Cable Public Affairs Channel - cpac
Canada's Political Channel.
CBC - Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
Canada's national public broadcaster.
Science, news, music & more.
Canada's Online News Resource.
Listen to CBC Radio, Canada's National Broadcaster.
"CTV Inc. is Canada's pre-eminent broadcast communications company". CTV News
Current news from Canada and the world.
Radio Canada International
Canadas Voice to the World.
Radio Canada Nouvelles
Canada News (in French)
Canadian related portal with news. Canada.com is owned and operated by Postmedia Network Inc., Canada’s largest publisher by circulation of paid English-language daily newspapers.
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Image: Jean Gagnon
Arts & Culture
__Contemporary and Fine Arts
Art Gallery of Ontario
The eighth largest art museum in North America presents 1000 years of extraordinary art.
Canada Council for the Arts - Le conseil des arts du Canada
An agency which fosters the development of the arts in Canada through grants, services and awards. (Canadian artists only)
McMichael Canadian Art Collection
Paintings, sculptures, drawings and prints by First Nations, Inuit and contemporary Canadian artists.
Montreal Museum of Fine Arts
Fine Arts collections.
Musée d'art contemporain de Montréal
Contemporary Québec art and international contemporary art.
National Gallery of Canada
Musée des Beaux-Arts du Canada.
Vancouver Art Gallery
A guide to cultural events by CBC.
The guide to alternative culture in Canada.
Picturing Canadian Culture.
Radio-Canada.ca - Zone Culture
A spot on cultural events (in French)
Well Known People Who Happen to be Canadian
Canlit - Canadian Literature Archive
Information about Canadian writers, novelists, poets, playwrights, essayists, Canadian literary organizations, magazines, publications, texts and library archives.
National Archives of Canada
Canada's archival heritage.
The National Library of Canada
National Library of Canada Home Page.
Canada Aviation Museum
Airplanes from the Pioneer Era until Post-1960.
Canadian Museum of Civilization
Virtual Museum of Canada's Civilization.
Canadian Museum of Nature
More than a natural history museum.
Museum of Anthropology MOA
Objects and expressions of human creativity.
Museum of Civilization in Quebec City
Site of the Human Adventure.
Royal British Columbia Museum
The human and natural history of British Columbia.
Royal Ontario Museum
The ROM will inspire wonder and build understanding of human cultures and the natural world.
Royal Tyrrell Museum
Textile Museum of Canada
The permanent collection contains more than 10 000 textiles and spans almost 2 000 years and 190 world regions.
Virtual Museum of New France
History of the French exploration of North America.
Virtual Museum of Canada
A Guide to Canadian Museums and Galleries and other cultural institutions.
Business & EconomyCanada is among the world's wealthiest nations, and is a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the Group of Seven (G7). The backbone of Canada's economy is the service industry, which employs about three quarters of the country's workforce. Other major economic bases are the logging and oil industries, and the manufacturing sector with its automobile and aircraft industries.
__Banks and Stock Exchanges
Bank of Canada
Canada's central bank.
Business Development Bank of Canada (BDC)
A federal Crown corporation wholly owned by the Government of Canada.
Royal Bank of Canada
Canadian multinational financial services company, the largest bank in Canada.
Bourse de Montréal
The Montréal Stock Exchange (MX), owned by Toronto- based TMX Group.
The Toronto Stock Exchange is in the Top10 of the world's largest stock exchanges.
Canada Business Network
Government Services for Canadian Businesses.
Canadian Chamber of Commerce
'The Voice of Canadian Business'.
Canadian Economy Online
Information on the Canadian economy, includes links to key Canadian economic indicators for the last ten years.
Strategis - Canada's Business Information Site
A guide to Canadian Business and Industries, Company Directories, Consumer Information.
West Jet Air
British Columbia Rail
The Rocky Mountaineer
VIA Rail Canada
Photo courtesy City of Ottawa
Travel and Tour Consumer Information
Destination Canada - Travel Guides
Discover Canada: Canadian Rockies, Jasper National Park, Rocky Mountains, Columbia Icefield, Banff National Park, Moraine Lake, Niagara Falls, Niagara Parks Butterfly Conservatory, Lake Ontario, Toronto Islands, Nahanni National Park Reserve,
hotels, accommodation, attractions, festivals, events, tourist boards, nature, biking, skiing, climbing, tours and much more.
Canadian attractions, events and experiences. Extensive information on Canada for travelers, tourists and all who are interested in Canada.
A comprehensive travel and tourism guide to Canada by the Canadian Tourism Commission.
The official Business Site of the Canadian Tourism Commission.
Waterton Glacier International Peace Park
UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 1932 Waterton Lakes National Park (Alberta, Canada) was combined with the Glacier National Park (Montana, United States) to form the world's first International Peace Park.
The Virtual Reference Library - VRL
Explore Ontario, present, past and future, through historic photographs, maps, digitized books, videos, and blog posts.
The Official Website of Canadas Capital.
Ottawa SmartCapital gateway
Online services for all sectors of the City of Ottawa.
Toronto's official website.
The city of Montreal.
Official Vancouver website.
The Canadian Provinces and Territories
more links and travel information on Canada and its Provinces and Territories: the ten provinces and three territories: Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, and Yukon.
__ Canada Reference
Canadian Social Research Links
A collection of Canadian and US related Social Research Links.
Photo: © Tourisme Montréal, Stéphan Poulin
Education, Science & ResearchAssociation of Universities and Colleges of Canada
Up-to-date information on Canadian higher education.
Canadian Communities Atlas Project
An Internet based network of Community Atlases that will be accessible to schools and the world.
Canadian Virtual University - Université Virtuelle Canadienne
A partnership of universities across Canada, committed to delivering university-level programs that can be completed from anywhere in the country or beyond.
Canadian Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences
HSSFC promotes teaching, research, and scholarship in the humanities and social sciences.
Study in Canada
Informational site on educational studies in Canada.
Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada
Social sciences and humanities.
Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS)
Canada from space - plus a remote sensing tutorial.
Canadian Space Agency
Be prepared for the future.
The Royal Canadian Geographical Society
Société géographique royale du Canada.
National Museum of Science and Technology
National Research Council
Canada's premier science and technology research organization.
The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
The national instrument for making strategic investments in Canada's capability in science and technology.
Ontario Science Centre
Environment & NatureEnvironment Canada's Green Lane
Environment Canada's Internet resource for weather and environmental information. The Green Lane TM helps connect Canadians, exchange information and share knowledge for environmental decision-making.
Canadian Biodiversity Information Network
Official information site of Biodiversity in Canada.
The Canadian Biodiversity Web Site
Site about biodiversity and especially Canada's biodiversity.
Canadian landscapes and landforms
A guide to Canadian National Historic Sites and National Parks.
A great collection of photos of Canadian landscapes and landforms.
Site of Nature Canada, one of Canada's leading conservation groups.
Web site about Canada’s oceans and fish habitat by Fisheries and Oceans Canada.
Canadian Wildlife Federation
The Hinterland Who's Who - Canadian Wildlife Service
Created in the early 1960s to interest the public in wildlife conservation, now online.
Canadian Museum of Nature
More than a natural history museum.
Natural Resources Canada
Government information about Energy Sources and Distribution, Mining, Forestry in Canada, and Climate Change.
Library and Archives Canada
Online access to resources, services and the collection of the Library and Archives Canada.
List of online resources about Canada's history by the Canadian Government.
The History of Canada Online
HCO is a browsable, searchable history textbook published by Northern Blue Publishing, with supporting resources, including image galleries and text libraries, timelines, quotations, learning activities and other features.
Canadian Heritage Gallery
A collection of historical Canadian pictures and photographs.
Canada - A Country by Consent
A Canadian history project.
The Canadian Encyclopedia
Canada's national encyclopedia.
Canadian Heritage Information Network
Gateway to museums, galleries, and heritage information.
The site provides a timeline and radio and television clips from the archives of the CBC about Canada's newer history.
The history of Canada
Wikipedia articles about Canada's history, covering the period from the arrival of Paleo-Indians thousands of years ago to the present day.
Assembly of First Nations - Assemblée des Premières Nations
Canadian The national representative organization of the First Nations in Canada.
Government information about Canada's First Nations and aboriginal heritage.
Ojibwe Cultural Foundation
Foundation to preserve and revitalize the language, culture, arts, spirituality, and traditions of the Anishinaabe people.
American Indians online
OWNO page about the First Nations of North America.
Open Directory Project: Canada
BBC Country Profile: Canada
Commonwealth of Nations: Canada
The World Factbook -- Canada
Other Countries of North America:
Mexico | USA
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