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Destination Iran, an Islamic republic between the Caspian Sea in north and the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in south. The country was formerly known as Persia. Iran is bordered by Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey, and Turkmenistan.
Flag of Iran
The country shares also maritime borders with Kazakhstan, and Russia (in the Caspian Sea), Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.
With an area of 1,648,195 km², Iran is almost three times the size of France or slightly smaller than Alaska.
Image: Arad Mojtahedi
Most of the country is situated on the Iranian Plateau (a geological formation in Western and Central Asia), with the exception of the coastal regions at the Caspian Sea and the Khuzestan Province in south west at the Persian Gulf. The Zagros Mountains in west form the largest mountain range in Iran, Iraq and southeastern Turkey. In north is the Elburz or Alborz mountain range that stretches from the border of Azerbaijan along the western and entire southern coast of the Caspian Sea. Mount Damavand at 5,610 m (18,410 ft) , Iran's highest mountain, is located in the Elburz mountain range.
The country has a population of 79 million people (in 2017) . Largest city and capital is Tehran. Other major cities are Mashhad, Isfahan, Karaj, Tabriz, Shiraz, Ahvaz, and Qom. Spoken languages are Persian (Farsi, official), Kurdish, Azeri, Arabic, Baluchi. Official religion is Shia Islam.
Islamic Republic of Iran | Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran
Iran is historically known as Persia, the Persian Empire was one of the greatest empires of the ancient world with a series of imperial dynasties. The empire also was frequently invaded, first by Alexander the Great, then by the Parthians, later ruled by the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire.
Iran's hereditary monarch, Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, fled the country in 1979 after decades of corrupt and authoritarian rule, and mounting religious and political unrest. Exiled Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini returned to lead an Islamic revolution and formed the world's first Islamic republic the same year. An eight-year war with Iraq followed.
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Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran
short form: Iran
int'l long form: Islamic Republic of Iran
ISO Country Code: ir, irn
Local Time = UTC +3.5h
Actual Time: Wed-Sept-19 22:22
Summer UTC +4.5
Country Calling Code: +98
Capital City: Tehran
Other Cities: Isfahan, Tabriz, Mashhad, Shiraz.
Type: Islamic republic.
Independence: 1 April 1979 (Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed)
Constitution: Ratified December 1979, revised 1989 to expand powers of the presidency and eliminate the prime ministership.
Location: Middle East bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea.
Area: 1.6 million km² (636,294 sq. mi.)
Terrain: Desert and mountains.
Climate: Semiarid; subtropical along the Caspian coast.
Population: 79 million (in 2017).
GNI per capita PPP: $ 8 065 (year)
Ethnic groups: Persians 51%, Azeri 24%, Gilaki and Mazandarani 8%, Kurd 7%, Arab 3%, Lur 2%, Baloch 2%, Turkmen 2%, other 1%.
Religions: Shi'a Muslim 89%; Sunni Muslim 9%; Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Baha'i 2%.
Languages: Persian and Persian dialects 58%, Turkic and Turkic dialects 26%, Kurdish 9%, Luri 2%, Balochi 1%, Arabic 1%, Turkish 1%, other.
Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur.
Agriculture products: Wheat, rice, other grains, sugar beets, fruits, nuts, cotton; dairy products, wool; caviar.
Industries: Petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production), metal fabrication, armaments.
Exports - commodities: petroleum 80%, chemical and petrochemical products, fruits and nuts, carpets, cement, ore
Exports - partners: China 22.2%, India 9.9%, Turkey 8.4%, Japan 4.5% (2015)
Imports - commodities: industrial supplies, capital goods, foodstuffs and other consumer goods, technical services
Imports - partners: UAE 39.6%, China 22.4%, South Korea 4.7%, Turkey 4.6% (2015)
Currency: Iranian Rial (IRR)
Iran in Figures
Iran key statistical data.
In 1979, the country, known in the west as Persia, became the Islamic Republic of Iran, ruled by a theocratic government. Chief of State is the Supreme Leader, who exerts ideological and political control over the state, he controls the armed forces and makes decisions on security, defense and major foreign policy issues.
Head of Government and head of the executive branch is the President, who is elected by popular vote for four years and can serve no more than two consecutive terms. The president's power is limited by decisions of the Supreme Leader, the influence of Islamic clerics and conservatives in Iran's coercive security apparatus and judiciary.
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Official Sites of Iran
Official website of the second and current Supreme Leader of Iran.
Presidency of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Official website of Hassan Rouhani's Office.
The Iranian parliament.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
MOFA of Islamic Republic of Iran.
Mission of The Islamic Republic of Iran to the UN
Iran's representation to the United Nations.
Iranian Missions Abroad
List of Iranian embassies and consulates
Statistical Centre of Iran (SCI)
Contains official statistics in fields such as agriculture, population, trade and economy of Iran.
Islamic Republic Of Iran Meteorological Organization
The weather in Iran.
Map of Iran
Political Map of Iran.
Google Earth Iran
Searchable map and satellite view of Iran.
Google Earth Tehran
Searchable map and satellite view of Iran's capital city.
Map of Western Asia
Map of Western Asia and the Middle East region.
Map of Asia
Reference Map of Asia.
Image: Diego Delso
According to BBC, all broadcasting from within Iran is controlled by the state and reflects official ideology. There is a wider range of opinions online and in the press.
Hossein Derakhshan, an Iranian writer and media analyst states that the Iranian government has matured in its understanding of how the media works. "They've constantly improved in their understanding of media, and its impact on society, especially since the foreign-based satellite televisions have started - the BBC Persian, and others. They have grown really worried that, if they keep the internal space too closed, and too limited, then people wouldn't watch, or wouldn't read, or wouldn't trust that they see."
Islamic Republic News Agency (IRNA)
The official news agency of Iran.
Tasnim News Agency
Tasnim News Agency is a private news agency in Iran, launched in 2012.
Iran News (in English)
Published by the Islamic Republic News Agency (IRNA).
Iran va Jahan
Iran related news in Farsi and English (Paris).
Tehran based English daily newspaper.
Iran News in Persian
Tehran based daily reformist newspaper.
International Persian Daily Newspaper.
Daily Newspaper (partly in English and French)
Most popular reformist newspaper in Iran
International News Sources
BBC News Country Profile: Iran
With links to Iran related news and background information.
Al-Araby (The New Arab)
Pan-Arab media outlet with Qatari background, headquartered in London.
Al Jazeera Iran News
Iran related news from Al Jazeera.
Amnesty International: Iran
Amnesty International Reports.
Human Rights Watch: Iran
Reporters sans frontières - Iran
Annual report about Press freedom in the country.
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Arts & Culture
Miniatures, Carpets, and Calligraphy
The arts of Iran (Persia) are one of the richest art heritages in world history and encompasses many traditional disciplines including architecture, painting, literature, music, weaving, pottery, calligraphy, metalworking and stonemasonry.
Iranian Cultural Heritage Organization
Iran government organization for cultural heritage, handcrafts and tourism (Persian only).
Carpet Museum of Iran
Fine Persian carpets. Carpet-weaving is an outstanding manifestations of Iranian art and culture.
Glassware and Ceramic Museum of Iran
Persian/Iranian glassware and ceramic from several centuries.
National Museum of Iran
The largest museum of history and archaeology in the country.
The Art of the Safavids before 1600
The Metropolitan Museum of Art article about art and culture of the the Safavid empire (1501–1722).
Culture of Iran
Site related to Iranian art and culture.
Islamic Arts and Architecture: Iran
The Islamic Arts and Architecture website shows also examples of Persian art.
Wikipedia articles related to the history and the development of Persian art or Iranian art.
Reza Abbasi Museum
Museum of Iranian cultural and art history with a collection of Persian art dating back to the second millennium BC.
Image: Phillip Maiwald
Business & Economy
Central Bank of Iran
Responsible for Iranian monetary policy.
Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE )
The site provides market summary, last prices, indices and listed companies.
Iran Chamber of Commerce, Industries and Mines
With information on joint chambers and international affairs.
The Airline of Islamic Republic of Iran.
Iran Aseman Airline
Serves destinations in Europe and Southeast Asia.
Travel and Tour Consumer Information
Destination Iran - Travel and Tour Guides
Discover Iran (Persia): Damavand Mountain ( highest point: 5 610 m), Caspian Sea, Persepolis, Bam (Arg e Bam), Tehran, Isfahan, Tabriz, Shiraz
Travel and tourism information for Iran by the Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism organization Iran (until now mostly in Persian).
Iran Tourism & Touring Organization
Comprehensive travel and tourism information for Iran.
Portal for Iranian-Persian history and culture.
Images of Iran.
All about Iran, Geschichte, Kultur, Kunst (in German).
The Tehran / Iran ACM Chapter promotes knowledge in the science, design, development, construction, languages, management and applications of modern computing.
Shahid Beheshti University
Sharif University of Technology
University of Tehran
- Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Environment & Nature
Geological Survey of Iran (GSI)
Organization for the geological study and the exploration of the mineral resources of Iran.
Green Party of Iran Environment
Includes articles about Iran's drought, air and water pollution, agriculture, flora and fauna.
International Institute for Caspian Studies
Studying political, economical, social, cultural, environmental issues of Caspian sea
Historic Periods and Events, extensive site for Iranian-Persian history by IranChamber.com.
The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS)
Site about art, archaeology, culture, history and languages of the area known as the "Greater Iran".
Virtual reconstruction of Persepolis, the ancient capital of the Persian Empire.
Iran Modern History Timeline
Timeline of the history of Iran since 1921.
Iran portal and directory.
Iranian directory with business and political resources.
Sources and additional Information on Iran
Other countries and territories in the Middle East
Bahrain | Cyprus | Egypt | Gaza Strip | Iraq | Israel | Jordan | Kuwait | Lebanon | Oman
Qatar | Saudi Arabia | Syria | Turkey | United Arab Emirates | West Bank | Yemen
Major Cities in the Middle East
Abu Dhabi, Aden, Alexandria, Amman, Ankara, Baghdad, Beirut, Cairo, Damascus, Doha, Dubai, Istanbul,
Jerusalem, Kuwait (City), Luxor, Manama, Mecca, Muscat, Nazareth, Nicosia, Port Said, Riyadh, Sana'a,
Sharm El Sheikh, Suez, Tehran, Tel Aviv
Other Countries in South Central Asia:
Afghanistan | Bangladesh | Bhutan | India | Kazakhstan | Kyrgyzstan | Maldives
| Nepal | Pakistan | Sri Lanka | Tajikistan | Turkmenistan | Uzbekistan
Major Cities in South Central Asia
Ashgabat, Astana, Bishkek, Chandigarh, Chennai, Colombo, Dhaka, Dushanbe, New Delhi, Islamabad, Kabul, Karachi, Kathmandu, Kolkata, Lahore, Male, Mumbai, Tashkent, Thimphu
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