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A virtual guide to Somalia. Get an overview of Somalian art, culture, people, environment, geography, history, economy and its government.
Beside a country profile with facts and figures, this page offers maps, statistics, weather information, and links to sources that provide you with information about this Eastern African nation.

 
 

Somali Republic - Somalia

Country Profile



Somalia Flag
Flag of Somalia

Background:
A SIAD BARRE regime was ousted in January 1991; turmoil, factional fighting, and anarchy followed for nine years. In May of 1991, northern clans declared an independent Republic of Somaliland which now includes the administrative regions of Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer, Sanaag, and Sool. Although not recognized by any government, this entity has maintained a stable existence, aided by the overwhelming dominance of the ruling clan and economic infrastructure left behind by British, Russian, and American military assistance programs.
The regions of Bari and Nugaal comprise a neighboring self-declared Republic of Puntland, which has also made strides towards reconstructing legitimate, representative government. Beginning in 1993, a two-year UN humanitarian effort (primarily in the south) was able to alleviate famine conditions, but when the UN withdrew in 1995, having suffered significant casualties, order still had not been restored.
A Transitional National Government (TNG) was created in October 2000 in Arta, Djibouti which was attended by a broad representation of Somali clans. The TNG has a three-year mandate to create a permanent national Somali government. The TNG does not recognize Somaliland or Puntland as independent republics but so far has been unable to reunite them with the unstable regions in the south; numerous warlords and factions are still fighting for control of Mogadishu and the other southern regions.
The Transitional Federal Government (TFG) has been deeply divided since just after its creation and until late December 2006 controlled only the town of Baidoa. In June 2006, a loose coalition of clerics, business leaders, and Islamic court militias known as the Supreme Council of Islamic Courts (SCIC) defeated powerful Mogadishu warlords and took control of the capital. The Courts continued to expand, spreading their influence throughout much of southern Somalia and threatening to overthrow the TFG in Baidoa. Ethiopian and TFG forces concerned over suspected links between some SCIC factions and al-Qaida in late December 2006 drove the SCIC from power, but the joint forces continue to fight remnants of SCIC militia in the southwestern corner of Somalia near the Kenyan border. The TFG, backed by Ethiopian forces, in late December 2006 moved into Mogadishu, but continues to struggle to exert control over the capital and to prevent the reemergence of warlord rule that typified Mogadishu before the rise of the SCIC.
(Source: CIA - The World Factbook)


border countries: Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya
 
Where in Africa is Somalia?
Official Name:
Somalia
long form: Somali Republic

ISO Country Code: so

Time:
Local Time = UTC +3h
Actual Time: Fri-Oct-31  18:33

Country Calling Code: +252

Capital City: Mogadishu

Other Cities: Baidoa, Beledweyne, Berbera, Bosasso, Gaalkayo, Hargeisa, Jowhar, Kismayo, Merca.

Government:
Transitional government, known as the Transitional Federal Government, established in October 2004 with a five-year mandate.
Independence: July 1, 1960 (from a merger between the former Somaliland Protectorate under British rule, and Italian Somaliland, to form the Somali Republic).

Geography:
Location: Horn of Africa, Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden on the north, and the Indian Ocean on the east, east of Ethiopia and Kenya.
Area: 637,657 kmĀ² (246,200 sq mi)
Terrain: Mostly flat savanna and semidesert, to undulating plateau rising to hills in the north.

Climate: Principally desert; hot and dry in the interior and hot and humid in coastal areas.
Two rainy seasons, from April to June and from October to December, each is followed by a dry season, very hot in the south with irregular rainfall in the coastal zone.

People:
Nationality: Somali(s)
Population: (2012) 9.8 million, of which an estimated 2 million live in Somaliland.
Ethnic groups: Somali, with a small non-Somali minority (mostly Bantu and Arabs).
Religion: 99.9% Muslim.
Languages: Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, English.
Literacy: total population that can read and write, 38%


Natural resources: Uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt, natural gas, likely oil reserves.

Agriculture products: Bananas, sorghum, corn, coconuts, rice, sugarcane, mangoes, sesame seeds, beans; cattle, sheep, goats; fish.

Industries: a few light industries, including sugar refining, textiles, wireless communication.

Exports partners: UAE 48.3%, Yemen 20.8%, Oman 5.8% (2005)
(livestock, bananas, hides, fish, charcoal, scrap metal)

Imports partners: Djibouti 31.8%, India 8.4%, Kenya 8.3%, Brazil 7.9%, Oman 5.6%, UAE 5.2%, Yemen 5.1% (2005)
(manufactures, petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials, qat)

Currency: Somali Shilling (SOS)

Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

Official Sites of Somalia

Somalia has been without a central government since President Siad Barre was overthrown in 1991, and much of the territory has been subject to serious civil strife. Statistical data on Somalia on this page are subject to dispute and error.

Transitional Federal Government of The Somali Republic
Official Website of the Federal Government of Somalia.

Somaliland
Somaliland is a de facto independent republic located on the northern part of the Horn of Africa within the internationally recognized borders of Somalia.

Somaliland Official Website
The Government of Somaliland.

Puntland
Puntland is a region in northeastern Somalia, bordering Somaliland in west, centered on Somalia's Garowe (Nugaal region). Puntland's leaders declared in 1998 Puntland to be an autonomous state.

Puntland State Of Somalia
The Government of Puntland.

Maps

Map of Somalia
Political Map of Somalia.
Google Earth Google Earth Somalia
Searchable map and satellite view of Somalia.
Google Earth Google Earth Mogadishu
Searchable map and satellite view of Somalia's capital city.

Political Map of Africa
The 54 countries of Africa.
Map of Africa
A Relief Map of Africa.
 

News

Banadir
Somali portal with newswires news on Somalia (based in Canada)
Dhambaal
Somali Newspaper (in English and Somali)
Himilo
National and international news
Hornafrik Online
Recent news from Somalia (English and Somali)

Aayaha.com
Somalia related news and opinions.
Maayland
The Voice of Somali Maay Population, with Somalia news.
Somaliland Times
English-language weekly, Somaliland.
Somaliland News Network (SNN)
Somaliland and Somalia related news. (partly in English)

Radio
Radio Banadir Broadcasting (RBB)
with News in English and Somali.

International News Sources

VOA News - Spotlight on Somalia
Voice of America Africa Somalia news.
 

 

Arts & Culture

Osmanart
Gallery site of the Somali born painter Mohamed Buwe Osman.
 

 

Business & Economy

Transportation
JUBBA Airways
Somalia based airline.
Star African Airlines
Domestic scheduled and charter flights.


 
 

Somalia - Guides


SomaliNet
Somalia related portal site.

Ethnic Groups
Maayland
Portal site of the Somali Maay Population.
National Somali Bantu Organization
US based site for Somali Bantu Refugees.

UN Somalia
Somalia information by the United Nations

 

Travel and Tour Consumer Information


Education

Amoud University
First institution of higher learning in Somalia after years of war.
Gollis University
Somaliland’s youngest accredited higher education institution.
Mogadishu University
Non-governmental institution of higher education.
Somali Teacher’s Association Site
SOTAS is an umbrella association serving to facilitate networking and collaborative and cooperative work between members across the education and training sector, and with other education and training, private, nonprofit and governmental partners.
University of Burao
An independent university established in 2004 in Burao, Somaliland.
 
 

Environment & Nature

Somali Centre for Water & Environment (SCWE)
Established for Somalia's destroyed environment and water scarcity problems.
 
 

History

Somalia History
by ArabNet

The Somali History
The plight of the Agro-pastoral Society of Somalia (by Mohamed Haji Mukhtar)

History of Somalia
Wikipedia entry about the History of Somalia.
 
 

Search

Banadir
Somali portal
SomaliNet
Somalia web directory

Additional Information about Somalia

Africa South of Sahara (Karen Fung) Somalia
ArabNet -- Somalia
BBC News Country Profile: Somalia
Background Notes: Somalia
Open Directory Project: Somalia
Wikipedia: Somalia
The World Factbook -- Somalia
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Actually, there are more than five colors,

Baron de Coubertin would have loved to use them all.

Why is it, that Gay and Lesbian people still are victims of persecution, harassment, and assaults occasioning actual bodily harm or worse?
Our world would be much poorer and colder without the creativity and ingenuity of the colorful LGBT* culture.
So, get up, stand up, and don't let it happen again and again and again.

Nature made sure, that all men are able to love each other without distinction of gender. This ability empowers humans to care for and to help each other. Natures gift simply secures the survival of the species.
But in some societies this natural law has been neglected by religions, governments and other interest groups in favour for better controllable straight-laced communities.

But if you know what life is worth, You will look for yours on earth
(lyrics from the song Get Up, Stand Up)
Bob Marley



* LGBT - acronym for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender

Declaration of Human Rights

Article I
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Article 2
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.