Isfahan, Tabriz, Mashhad, Shiraz.
Type: Islamic republic.
Independence: 1 April 1979 (Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed)
Constitution: Ratified December 1979, revised 1989 to expand powers of the presidency
and eliminate the prime ministership.
Location: Middle East bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian
: 1.6 million km² (636,294 sq. mi.)
Terrain: Desert and mountains.
Semiarid; subtropical along the Caspian coast.
: 83 million (in 2020).
GNI per capita PPP
: $ 8 065 (year)
Ethnic groups: Persians 51%, Azeri 24%, Gilaki and Mazandarani 8%, Kurds 7%, Arabs
3%, Lurs 2%, Baloch 2%, Turkmen 2%, other 1%.
Religions: Shi'a Muslim 89%; Sunni Muslim 9%; Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian,
and Baha'i 2%.
and Persian dialects 58%, Turkic and Turkic dialects 26%, Kurdish 9%, Luri 2%,
Balochi 1%, Arabic 1%, Turkish 1%, other.
Petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron
ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur.
Wheat, rice, other grains, sugar beets, fruits, nuts,
cotton, dairy products, wool, caviar.
Petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other construction
materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production),
metal fabrication, armaments.
Exports - commodities:
petroleum 60%, chemical and petrochemical products, fruits and nuts, carpets, cement, ore
Exports - partners: China
12%, South Korea
6%, United Arab Emirates
Imports - commodities:
industrial supplies, capital goods, foodstuffs and other consumer goods, technical services
Imports - partners:
China 28%, United Arab Emirates 20%, India 11%, Turkey 7%, Brazil
Iranian Rial (IRR)
Iran in Figures
Iran key statistical data.