Pakistan Flag detail
Home Earth Continents Asia Asia Map Pakistan
All Countries

Country Profile Government Maps News Culture Business Tourism Pakistan is known for... World Heritage Sites Education Environment History Native Info


Alamgiri, the main gate to Lahore Fort, Pakistan
The famous Alamgiri Gate at sunset. It is the main gate to Lahore Fort, a huge citadel in the walled city of Lahore. Opposite Alamgiri Gate is the iconic Badshahi Mosque.
Image: Noor Soban

Location map of Pakistan. Where in Asia is Pakistan?
Location map of Pakistan

Pakistan Flag
Flag of Pakistan

Pakistan in brief

Destination Pakistan, a Nations Online country profile of the South Asian nation, formerly part of the British Empire in India.

The Islamic Republic is situated between the Karakoram mountain range, the Himalayas and China in the northeast, Afghanistan in the northwest, Iran in the southwest, the Arabian Sea in the south, and India in the east.

The country occupies an area of 796,095 km²; compared, it is somewhat larger than Turkey (783,562 km²) or slightly less than twice the size of the U.S. state of California. It would fit four times in India, its neighbor and arch-enemy.

The world's fifth most populous country (in 2022) is home to more than 228 million people.
Pakistan's capital is Islamabad. The most important port, the largest city and the biggest economic center of the country is Karachi. Pakistan's second-largest city is Lahore. Other major Pakistani cities are Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Multan, Gujranwala, Hyderabad (Pakistan), Peshawar, and Quetta.
Spoken languages are Urdu (a form of Hindustani), English (both official), Punjabi, Sindhi, Dari, Balochi, and Pashto.
Main religion is Islam (96%).

Within Pakistan's landscape, there is the flat fertile Indus plain in the east, nurtured by the Indus, the country's longest river and a key water resource. Pakistan's north is mountainous. The nation's highest mountains are the K2 in the Karakoram Range and the Nanga Parbat, the 'Naked Mountain,' in the Himalayas in Gilgit-Baltistan. Pakistan's largest and least populated province is Balochistan in the southwest; the region includes the Balochistan Plateau and the Sulaiman Mountains.

Islamic Republic of Pakistan | اسلامی جمہوریہ پاکستان

The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with two sections West and East) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved.
A third war between these countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan seceding and becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. A dispute over the state of Kashmir is ongoing. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in 1998.

Pakistan has been in an armed conflict for decades with militant groups attacking state facilities and civilians, including the Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) and other militant networks.

Imran KHAN took office as prime minister in 2018 after the Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaaf (PTI) party won a majority of seats in the July 2018 general election.

In April 2022, Imran Khan was deposed as head of state after a vote of no confidence on allegations of economic mismanagement and foreign policy missteps, bringing his turbulent tenure to an end (for the time being). Pakistan's new prime minister is, since 11 April 2022, Mian Muhammad Shehbaz SHARIF.

(Sources: CIA - The World Factbook, CNN, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Pakistan)


Country Profile

Official Name:
Islami Jamhooriya-e-Pakistan
short form: Pakistan
int'l long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan

ISO Country Code: pk, PAK

Local Time = UTC +5h
Actual Time: Wed-June-12  08:35

Country Calling Code: +92

Capital City: Islamabad (pop. 1 million) and adjacent Rawalpindi (pop. 1.4 million) comprise the national capital area with a combined population of 3.7 million. 

Other Cities:
Karachi (9 million), Lahore (5 million), Faisalabad (2 million) and Hyderabad (1 million) more


Official Sites of Pakistan

Pakistan's National Assembly building in Islamabad. The building was inaugurated on on the 28th of May 1986.
Image: Senate of Pakistan

Political System
Pakistan is a semi-secular, Islamic federal parliamentary republic with Islam as the state religion. Pakistan is a nuclear power. The country's nuclear weapons program was established in 1972.

Chief of state is the president, head of government is the prime minister. The president appoints the cabinet upon the advice of the prime minister.
Pakistan's federal and supreme legislative branch is a bicameral parliament (Majlis ê Shura); it consists of the Senate and the National Assembly (lower house). The country's legal system is a common law system with Islamic law influence.

Note: External links will open in a new browser window.


The Government of Pakistan
The official government site.

President of Pakistan
Official website of the presidency of the Islamic Republic.

Prime Minister of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Official website of Pakistan's Prime Minister.

National Assembly of Pakistan
Official website of the National Assembly of Pakistan

Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Pakistan
The information gateway to Pakistan.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Pakistan
Official site of the ministry.

Diplomatic Missions
Permanent Mission of Pakistan to the UN
Pakistan's representation to the United Nations.

Embassy of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan in the U.S.
Official site of the Embassy in Washington D.C.

Pakistani Embassies and Missions Abroad
Address list of Pakistani Embassies and Missions Abroad.
Foreign Missions in Pakistan
List of Foreign Missions in Pakistan.

Regional Governments
Government of Punjab
Official site of the Government of Punjab.
Government of Sindh
Official site of the Government of Sindh.
Government of Balochistan
Government of Pakistan's largest province.

Statistics Division
National Statistical Office of Pakistan.

Pakistan Meteorological Department
Climate in Pakistan.




Maps of Pakistan

Pakistan Map link image
Map of Pakistan (click map to enlarge)
Image: ©


profile Map of Pakistan
Political Map of Pakistan.
profile Administrative Map of Pakistan
Map showing Pakistan's administrative divisions.
profile Map of Kashmir Region
Political Map of Pakistan.

Google Earth Google Earth Pakistan
Searchable map/satellite view of Pakistan.
Google Earth Google Earth Islamabad
Searchable map/satellite view of Pakistan's capital city.
Google Earth Google Earth Abbottabad
Searchable map/satellite view of Abbottabad, the hiding place of Osama bin Laden.
Google Earth Google Earth Karachi
Searchable map/satellite view of Karachi, largest city and business capital of Pakistan.
Google Earth Google Earth Lahore
Searchable map/satellite view of Lahore, second largest city of Pakistan.

profile Map of Asia
Reference map of Asia.



News from Pakistan

Pakistan Newsstand

Online News from Pakistan

Freedom of Press in Pakistan
The law protects press freedom in Pakistan, but the country continues to be ranked as one of the most dangerous countries in the world for journalists. Arbitrary arrests, detentions and unfounded prosecutions are still used as instruments of press censorship. As part of its crackdown on freedom of expression, the Pakistani government is seeking sweeping new powers to control the media. [1] [2]

News Agencies
Associated Press of Pakistan - APP
Pakistan News Agency, Islamabad.
Independent News Pakistan
Islamabad-based Pakistani news agency.

English-language newspapers
Daily Ausaf
English-language version of the international Urdu daily newspaper Daily Ausaf.
Pakistan's largest and oldest English-language newspaper and the country's newspaper of record.
The Friday Times
Pakistan's independent weekly paper.
Daily Times
English-language newspaper, published in Lahore and Karachi.
The Frontier Post
English daily published from Peshawar and Quetta.
The Nation
National and international news.
The News International
The News International Pakistan.
Pakistan Today
Pakistani English-language daily newspaper.
The Pakistan Link
Largest USA based Pakistani American newspaper.
The Express Tribune is a daily broadsheet based in Karachi and the first internationally affiliated newspaper in Pakistan.

Pakistan News in Urdu
Daily Ausaf
Islamabad-based newspaper.
Daily Express
Latest news in Urdu.
Pakistan News (in Urdu)
Pakistan News (in Urdu)

International News Sources
BBC News Country Profile: Pakistan
With links to Pakistan-related news and background information.
World News Network - Pakistan
Pakistan News by World News Network
Reuters - Pakistan
Reuters news.

Human Rights
Amnesty International: Pakistan
Amnesty International Reports.
Human Rights Watch: Pakistan
Background Briefings.

Press freedom
Reporters sans frontières - Pakistan
Annual report about Press freedom in the country.



Arts & Culture of Pakistan

Chaukhandi Tombs of an early Islamic cemetery near Karachi
The Chaukhandi Tombs of an early Islamic cemetery near Karachi in Sindh province. The Chaukhandi Tombs are on UNESCO's World Heritage Tentative List.
Image: Yasir Dora

Arts & Culture

The National Museum of Pakistan in Karachi
The National Museum of Pakistan in Karachi is the country's largest museum.
Image: A.Savin

Wikipedia W Culture of Pakistan
Wikipedia entry for the Culture of Pakistan.

Pakistan Museum of Natural History - PNMH
The museum of natural history in Islamabad offers botanical sciences, earth sciences, zoological sciences and public services.

Lahore Museum
Lahore Museum is one of Pakistan's most visited famous museums.

Lok Virsa Heritage Museum

The mandate of the Lok Virsa Heritage Museum in Islamabad is to preserve, document and promote Pakistan's cultural heritage.

National History Museum Lahore
Modern museum dedicated to Pakistan's history.

Encyclopædia Britannica Daily life and social customs
Encyclopædia Britannica article about Pakistani culture.

20 Best Pakistani Ghazal Singers of All Time
Ghazal is a popular genre of both music and poetry in Pakistan.

Part of Lok Virsa Museum in Islamabad
Part of the Lok Virsa Heritage Museum in Islamabad.
Image: Ibnazhar



Business & Economy of Pakistan

Building of the Empress Market in Karachi, Pakistan
Empress Market building in Karachi, a marketplace in Saddar, the historic colonial center of the capital of Sindh province. The Empress Market was built between 1884 and 1889 and named in memory of (British) Queen Victoria, Empress of India.
Image: A.Savin

Economy of Pakistan

Pakistan is a developing country. The world's 22nd largest economy is semi-industrialized and mainly based on manufacturing and agriculture. Agriculture contributes about one-quarter of the gross domestic product (GDP), accounts for approximately half of the labor force, and is the largest source of foreign exchange earnings. Major crops are wheat, rice, sugarcane, maize and cotton.
Pakistan's major exports include textiles, leather goods, sporting goods, chemicals and carpets.

Farming between the Mountains in Pakistan
Farming between the mountains in Azad Kashmir, Northern Pakistan.
Image: Waqar Rasheed

State Bank of Pakistan
Pakistan's Central Bank.

Pakistan Stock Exchange
PSX is a stock exchange in Pakistan with trading floors in Karachi, Islamabad and Lahore.

Habib Bank Limited
HBL is a Pakistani multinational bank based in Karachi.

Trade Development Authority Of Pakistan
TDAP is the successor organization to the Export Promotion Bureau (EPB) of the Government of Pakistan.

Pakistan Carpet Manufacturers & Exporters Association
Association of the Pakistani carpet industry.

The largest firms in Pakistan
Pakistan State Oil
PSO is a Pakistani state-owned petroleum corporation based in Karachi.

Pak-Arab Refinery
PARCO is a Pakistani joint venture oil and gas company.

Sui Northern Gas Pipelines
SNGPL is the country's gas provider; its transmission system extends from Sui in Baluchistan to Peshawar in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

Wikipedia W List of companies of Pakistan
Wikipedia's list of major companies in Pakistan.


A Pakistan International Airlines Boeing 777-200LR boarding at Allama Iqbal International Airport in Lahore.
A Pakistan International Airlines Boeing 777-200LR boarding at Allama Iqbal International Airport in Lahore.
Image: Ahmed Basit

Pakistan International Airlines
PIA is the flag carrier airline of Pakistan and based in Karachi.
Pakistani private airline based in Karachi.
The airline serves destinations within Pakistan.
The private airline, headquartered in Islamabad, serves destinations in Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and China, in addition to several Pakistani cities.

Shaheen Air International
Shaheen was a Pakistani private airline based in Karachi; it ceased operations in 2018.

International Airports
Islamabad International Airport
The airport commenced full operations in May 2018, replacing the defunct Benazir Bhutto International Airport. (IATA: ISB)

Jinnah International Airport
Pakistan's largest international and domestic airportis located in Karachi. (IATA: KHI)

Allama Iqbal International Airport
Pakistan's second-largest civil airport is located in Lahore. (IATA: LHE)

Bacha Khan International Airport
Peshawar's international airport. (IATA: PEW)

Multan International Airport MIAP
South Punjab's largest and busiest airport is located near the city of Multan. (IATA: MUX)

Other international airports in Pakistan.
Gwadar (IATA: GWD)
Quetta (IATA: UET)

Pakistan has three major international deep seaports, Karachi, Gwadar, and Port Qasim.

Gwadar Port
The deep-water seaport at Gwadar, in Balochistan province.

Port of Karachi
Karachi Port is the country's chief port and container terminal.

Port Qasim
Port Qasim is a deep-water seaport 50 km east of Karachi.

Pakistan Railways
Pakistan Railways Headquarters Office in Lahore. Pakistan Railway maintains 11,900 km (7,400 mi) of track across Pakistan.

Gantry cranes at the Port of Karachi's container terminal, Pakistan
Sunset behind gantry cranes of the container terminal in the Port of Karachi.
Image: Sherbaz jamaldini



Tourism in Pakistan

Wazir Khan Mosque in Lahore, Pakistan
The 17th century Wazir Khan Mosque in Lahore. It is considered the most richly decorated mosque of the Mughal era and is famous for its intricate faience tile work.
Image: Umair Khan

Destination Pakistan - Travel and Tour Guides


In Pakistan, tourism is a growing industry, but the country's reputation is marred by stories of terrorism, corruption, religious extremism and Taliban rule. [3]

Nevertheless, travel magazines have copied from each other for years, promoting the country as "the" upcoming destination, mostly just to fill their glossy pages.

Pakistan Travel Advisory: Level 3: Reconsider Travel!

Discover Pakistan
However, Pakistan's main attractions include cultural and archaeological destinations as found in Mohenjo-Daro in Sindh, Harappa in Punjab, Mehrgarh in Balochistan, and early Muslim and Mughal heritage sites at Multan, Lahore, Thatta and Peshawar.
Early Buddhism sites are in Takht-i-Bahi, Gandhara, Taxila and Swat.

Nanga Parbat - View across the Indus and desert plains in the Northern Areas of Pakistan Nanga Parbat (Diamer) - View across the Indus and desert plains near Bunji, a town on the Karakoram Highway in Gilgit-Baltistan (Northern Areas) of Pakistan.
Image: zerega

Adventure tourism in the Northern Areas: Hunza valley, Mt. Rakaposhi, Nanga Parbat, Khyber Pass, Karakoram, K-2.

Find accommodation, hotels, attractions, festivals, events, tourist boards, adventure, skiing, hiking, climbing, cruising, diving, tours and more in the following pages.

Pakistan Tourism
The Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation promotes tourism in Pakistan.

Tourism and Archaeology Azad Jammu & Kashmir
Tourism information about the Azad Kashmir region administered by Pakistan.

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Culture and Tourism Authority
Official website of Tourism Corporation Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, one of the four administrative provinces of Pakistan.

Sindh Tourism Development Corporation (STDC)
Information on traveling in Sindh province in southeastern Pakistan.

Punjab Tourism Development Corporation
Official Punjab province travel guide.

Visit Gilgit-Baltistan
Travel guide to Gilgit-Baltistan, a region also known as the Northern Areas.

Wikivoyage Logo Wikivoyage: Pakistan
The free travel guide in many languages about traveling in Pakistan.

Pakistan Travel & Culture Services
Full-service tour operator and travel agent in Pakistan.

City Guides
Experience Islamabad
Official website of the Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT) Administration.
A city guide and business directory of Islamabad.

Official website of the city of Karachi, a major city and port and the capital of Sindh province.

The capital of Punjab and the second-largest city in the country.

Lower Kachura Lake, also known as Shangrila Lake, Pakistan
Lower Kachura Lake, also known as Shangrila Lake at Skardu in Gilgit-Baltistan. The lake is situated at an elevation of nearly 2,500 m (8,202 ft) in the Skardu Valley, at the confluence of the Indus and Shigar Rivers. Skardu is an important gateway to the eight-thousanders of the nearby Karakoram mountain range.
Image: Bilal Javed Awan



What is Pakistan famous for?

The ceiling mosaic of the main dome in the Shah Jahan Mosque in Thatta.
The ceiling mosaic of the central dome in the Shah Jahan Mosque in Thatta. Nearby the mosque is Makli Necropolis, one of the largest funerary sites in the world.
Image: A.Savin

Pakistan is home to the second-highest mountain on Earth, the K2 (8,611 m (28,251 ft)).
The country controls the Khyber Pass and the Bolan Pass; traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent.

When in Pakistan, you should visit Punjab's capital, the country's most cosmopolitan city, Lahore. The city features the 17th-century Mughal-era Wazir Khan Mosque, the 16th century Lahore Fort with gardens and the Minar-e-Pakistan, Pakistan's national tower.

450 km southwest of Lahore, in the Cholistan Desert, is the impressive structure of the 9th Derawar Fort.

Snow-capped mountains, lush forests and verdant alpine meadows can be found in the Swat Valley in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and in the scenic Hunza, a mountainous valley in the Gilgit-Baltistan region, bordering the Pamir Mountains and the Chinese province of Xinjiang.
Looking for adventure? There is the Khyber Pass on the border between Pakistan and Afghanistan, formerly part of the Silk Road and now a section on the Asian Highway 1.
100 km east of Karachi is the famous Shah Jahan Mosque in Thatta (near Makli).

Other attractions in Pakistan

Lowering of the flags ceremony at the Attari-Wagah border crossing
Lowering of the flags ceremony at the Attari-Wagah (Pakistani-Indian border)
Image: Stefan Krasowski

The lowering of the flags ceremony at the Attari-Wagah is a famous tourist attraction.

Colorful Pakistani truck-art; Jingle trucks, heavy-goods vehicles with bells and whistles.

The huge Khewra Salt Mines in the Punjab region are a major tourist attraction.


Multan Pottery
and Onyx.
Pink Himalayan salt
from the Punjab region (with unproven claims of health benefits). Gemstones like Black Onyx and Pakistani Peridot. Craft from sheesham wood.

Pakistan Trivia
The Indus River valley in present-day Pakistan was the site of the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilization (Harappan civilization), one of the world's three earliest civilizations (2500–1700 BCE).

Pakistan is home to the youngest ever Nobel Peace Prize winner, Malala Yousafzai, a Pakistani women's education activist who was shot and nearly killed by a Taliban gunman.

The 1,300 km (800 mi) long Karakoram Highway is one of the world's highest paved roads at a maximum elevation of 4,714 m.

"Welcome to the Dungeon" - Brain, the first PC computer virus, was created in Pakistan. [WP]

The national sport of Pakistan is Hockey, but Cricket is the most popular sport in the country.



UNESCO World Heritage Sites

The historical Rohtas Fort is located near the city of Jhelum in Punjab, Pakistan.
Rohtas Fort is a historical fortress from the 16th century. It is located near the city of Jhelum in Punjab province. The main fortifications of the complex consist of massive walls, which extend for more than 4 km.
Image: Hussain Khalid

UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Pakistan
There are six cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Pakistan. Additionally, 26 properties are listed in UNESCO's Tentative List (see the List of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Pakistan).

World Heritage Site Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore
The site comprises two masterpieces from the heyday of the Mughal civilization during the time of Emperor Shah Jahan. Within its walls, the Fort of Lahore encloses an ensemble of palaces and marble mosques ornamented with mosaics and gilding. Near the city, the splendid Shalamar Gardens, terraced in three terraces, offer an outstanding example of artistic refinement with its pavilions, waterfalls and vast ponds.

World Heritage Site Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro
The site houses the ruins of a huge city in the Indus Valley, built entirely in the third millennium BC of sun-dried bricks. The citadel was built on huge dams; the walls and the strict planning of the layout of the lower city testify to a sophisticated, planned early urbanism.

World Heritage Site Buddhist Ruins of Takht-i-Bahi and Neighbouring City Remains at Sahr-i-Bahlol
The exceptionally well-preserved monastic complex from the early 1st century CE is located 15 km northwest of Mardan in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It is one of the most imposing relics of Buddhism in the Gandhara region of northwest Pakistan. Nearby Takht-i-Bahi are the ruins of Sahr-i-Bahlol, a small fortified city from the same period.

World Heritage Site Rohtas Fort
Rohtas Fort is a 16th-century fortress near the city of Jehlum in the Punjab province. The main fortifications of the complex consist of massive walls, which extend for more than 4 km.

Badshahi Mosque and Red Fort Lahore, Pakistan.
The Badshahi Mosque, the huge building from the Mughal period, is one of the landmarks of Lahore and part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Image: Wasif Malik


Education in Pakistan

Mughal architectural style building of the University of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province
The Indo-Saracenic architectural style building of the University of Peshawar, a public research university located in Peshawar, the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province.
Image: Askhokhar66

Major Universities in Pakistan

National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences
FAST is a Premier University of Pakistan with campuses at Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad, Peshawar and Chiniot-Faisalabad.

Federal Urdu University
The Federal Urdu University of Arts, Sciences & Technology is a public university in Islamabad and the first university in Pakistan.

Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology
GIK(I) is a prestigious private research university located in Topi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, about 100 km by road, northwest of Islamabad.

Hamdard University
Official site of Hamdard University in Karachi. Hamdard is one of the first and the oldest private institutions of higher education in the country.

Allama Iqbal Campus of the Punjab University in Lahore, Pakistan
The Allama Iqbal Campus of Punjab University in Lahore, the oldest university in Pakistan, was founded in 1882.
Image: Dawood Jawad

Lahore University of Management Sciences
The Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS) is a national university.

National University of Science and Technology
Official site of NUST, Islamabad.

Quaid-I-Azam University
QAU in Islamabad is among Pakistan's most prestigious universities.

Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute
Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology is a private science institute of higher learning based in Karachi.

University of Balochistan
Official website of the university, located in Quetta, the largest city in Balochistan.

University of Karachi
Pakistan's biggest university was established in 1951.

University of the Punjab
Punjab University is a public research university in Lahore; it is the oldest university in Pakistan, founded in 1882.

List of universities in Pakistan
Comprehensive list of universities in Pakistan by Wikipedia.

Rankings of universities in Pakistan
University rankings in Pakistan.

English-Urdu Dictionary and Translations.



Environment & Nature

Hanna Lake affected by water pollution and negligence, Pakistan
The shape and natural appearance of Hanna Lake (one of the natural lakes of Pakistan) has been affected by water pollution and negligence.
Image: Izharkasi

Pakistan environment
Pakistan is particularly vulnerable to severe weather and other climate change impacts, such as saltwater intrusion, unusual rain patterns, glacial melting, rising temperatures and droughts. But, as in many developing countries, environmental protection is not a top priority.

Government agencies
Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency
Pak-EPA is a federal executive agency to protect human health and the environment.

Environment Protection Department, Punjab
PITB was established to eradicate the rapidly increasing problem of environmental degradation.

Non-governmental organizations
Himalayan Wildlife Foundation
The Himalayan Wildlife Foundation was established to protect and manage the country's natural resources and cultural heritage.

Pakistan Fisherfolk Forum
PFF is an NGO that works to advance the social, economic, cultural and political rights of fishers and fishing communities in Pakistan.

Environmental Protection Foundation in Pakistan, based in Lahore.

With Pakistan's rivers dying, are its ancient cities running out of time?
Pakistan's rivers are drying up.

The Deosai Plains in the northern portion of the Kashmir region, Pakistan
The Deosai Plains are the world's second-highest alpine plains. The plateau is situated about 8o km southeast of Nanga Parbat in Gilgit-Baltistan, the northern portion of the larger Kashmir region.
Image: Qammer Wazir


Pakistan History

Map showing the prevailing Religions in the British Indian Empire
Map of Prevailing Religions in the British Indian Empire (Key: Pink: Hindu, Green: Muslim, diagonal lines: Sikh, (small area in Punjab), Yellow: Buddhist (Burma and Chittagong Hill Tracts), Blue: Christian (Goa), Purple: Animist (several inland hilly areas)).
Map: Oxford University Press 1909

The History of Pakistan

The story of Pakistan begins with the British being forced to "quit India." On 14 August 1947, the country became an independent federal dominion in the Muslim-majority areas of British India (the territories of today's Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the People's Republic of Bangladesh). It was the result of the Pakistan Movement (Tahrik-e-Pakistan) and India's partition into the independent dominions of India and Pakistan within the British Empire.
India's partition displaced between 10 and 20 million people along religious lines, creating an overwhelming refugee crisis in the newly constituted dominion.

Encyclopædia Britannica Qaid-i-Azam - Mohammed Ali Jinnah
Encyclopædia Britannica article about the Father of the Nation, the founder of Pakistan.

Quick-History of Pakistan
A timeline of Pakistan's History.

Heritage Foundation of Pakistan
The goal of the organization is to document and preserve Pakistan's traditional and historic buildings.

National Fund for Cultural Heritage
Places of historical interest and natural beauty in Pakistan.

Pakistan History
Pakistan's Historical Background.

Story of Pakistan
Comprehensive Reference on the Political History of Pakistan.

The Road to Partition 1939-1947
The British National Archives offers the story of the partition of India "using original documents on this period of history."

Wikipedia W History of Pakistan
Wikipedia article about Pakistan's history in many languages.


Indigenous People of Pakistan

Kalash people festival in the Chitral district of northern Pakistan
Kalash people festival. The three remote Kalasha valleys in the Chitral district of northern Pakistan, near the border with Afghanistan, are home to the animist Kalash (Waigali) people.
Image: KamalZain

Indigenous peoples of Pakistan

The Pakistani government does not recognize indigenous peoples but refers to them as tribal. They are recognized as minorities, and typically their religious identity trumps their linguistic or ethnic identity.

The main groups of tribal peoples in the country are the tribal fishing peoples, the pastoral groups of the Middle Indus Valley, the Baloch tribes, the fisherfolk of coastal areas, tribal peoples of Sindh, tribal peoples of Gilgit-Baltistan, tribal peoples of Chitral Valley, tribal peoples of Pothohar Region, and the tribal peoples of North-west Frontier Province (NWFP) and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA). The semi-autonomous Federally Administered Tribal Areas in northwestern Pakistan and the North-west Frontier Province were merged into the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province.

See also:
Wikipedia W Ethnic groups in Pakistan
Wikipedia list of ethnic groups in Pakistan.

Violations of Indigenous Peoples' Rights in Pakistan (DOC)
Shared document from the UN Human Rights Office and Cultural Survival, an organization that advocates for Indigenous Peoples' rights and supports Indigenous communities.

Observations on the State of Indigenous Human Rights in Pakistan (pdf)



Additional Information

Selected country profiles of Pakistan published by international organizations.


Amnesty International: Pakistan
Amnesty International is a non-governmental organization focused on human rights.

BBC Country Profile: Pakistan
Country profiles by the British public service broadcaster.

BTI Transformation Index Pakistan
Pakistan Country Report 2020 by Bertelsmann Stiftung.

The Commonwealth - Pakistan
Profile of the Commonwealth Member country Pakistan.

Council on Foreign Relations: Pakistan
The United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.

FAO: Pakistan Country Profile
UN Food and Agriculture Organization.

Freedom House: Pakistan
The U.S. government-funded non-profit organization whose goal is to promote liberal democracies worldwide.

GlobalEDGE: Pakistan
Pakistan ranking by the Global business knowledge portal.

The Heritage Foundation: Pakistan
Index of Economic Freedom by The Heritage Foundation, an American conservative think tank.

Human Rights Watch: Pakistan
HRW conducts research and advocacy on human rights.

OEC: Pakistan
The Observatory of Economic Complexity provides the latest international trade data.

Reporters Without Borders: Pakistan
RSF (Reporters sans frontières) is an international NGO that defends and promotes media freedom.

Wikipedia: Pakistan
Wikipedia's Pakistan page in many languages.

World Bank Data: Pakistan
World Development Indicators database.

The World Factbook -- Pakistan
CIA World Factbook Pakistan Page.


Other Countries in South and Central Asia
AfghanistanBhutan | India | Iran | Kazakhstan | Kyrgyzstan | Maldives | Nepal | Sri Lanka | TajikistanTurkmenistan | Uzbekistan
Maps of other Countries in South and Central Asia
Afghanistan MapBhutan Map | India Map | Iran Map | Kazakhstan Map | Kyrgyzstan Map | Maldives Map | Nepal Map | Sri Lanka Map | Tajikistan MapTurkmenistan Map | Uzbekistan Map

Major Cities in South and Central Asia
Chandigarh, Chennai, Colombo, Dhaka, New Delhi, Islamabad, Karachi, Kathmandu, Kolkata,
Lahore, Male, Mumbai, Thimphu