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Kazakhstan government headquarters in Astana
Kazakhstan government headquarters in Astana, the country's capital, with the new parliament buildings to the right.
Image: Ken and Nyetta

___ Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan Flag
Flag of Kazakhstan
Location map of Kazakhstan. Where in Asia is Kazakhstan?
Location map of Kazakhstan

Destination Kazakhstan, a republic in Central Asia, south of Russia, that extends east from the Caspian Sea to the Altai Mountains and China in west. Until 1991 Kazakhstan was one of the fifteen Soviet republics.

Kazakhstan's small area west of the Ural river (in Kazakhstan known as Zhayyq) is geographically, even though not politically, located within Europe.
Border countries are China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.

An area of 2,724,900 km² makes Kazakhstan to the largest landlocked country in the world, although it has a shoreline at the Caspian Sea but the country has no immediate access to the world’s oceans. Compared it is almost the size of Argentina or slightly less than four times the size of the US state of Texas.

The multiethnic country has a population of 17,7 million people (in 2016), making it one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world. Vast regions of the territory of the republic are uninhabited. Capital is Astana, largest city is Almaty. Spoken languages are Kazakh (official) and Russian as second language.


Republic of Kazakhstan | Qazaqstan Respublikasy

Country Profile

Native Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated into the region in the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation.
The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th century and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1936.
During the 1950s and 1960s agricultural "Virgin Lands" program, Soviet citizens were encouraged to help cultivate Kazakhstan's northern pastures. This influx of immigrants (mostly Russians, but also some other deported nationalities) skewed the ethnic mixture and enabled non-Kazakhs to outnumber natives. Independence has caused many of these newcomers to emigrate.
Current issues include: developing a cohesive national identity; expanding the development of the country's vast energy resources and exporting them to world markets; and continuing to strengthen relations with neighboring states and other foreign powers.
(Source: CIA - The World Factbook)

border countries: China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan

related countries: Mongolia, Turkey


Official Name:
Qazaqstan Respublikasy
short form: Qazaqstan
int'l long form: Republic of Kazakhstan
int'l short form: Kazakhstan

ISO Country Code: kz

Local Time = UTC +5h +6h
Actual Time: Mon-Apr-15  22:36 (Astana)

Country Calling Code: +7

Capital City: Astana (capital, since 1998, pop. 530 000)

Other Cities: Almaty (former capital) 1.2 million, Karaganda 440 000, Shymkent 370 000, Taraz 340 000, Ust-Kamenogorsk 310 000, Pavlodar 300 000.

Type: Republic; Kazakhstan has a hybrid system of Government that combines aspects of both parliamentary and presidential systems.
Independence: 16 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union).
Declaration of sovereignty: 25 October 1990.

Location: Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea in west.
Area: 2.7 million km² (1.05 million sq. mi.); ninth-largest nation in the world; the size of Western Europe.
Terrain: Extends east to west from the Caspian Sea to the Altay Mountains and north to south from the plains of Western Siberia to the oasis and desert of Central Asia.
Highest peak: Kan Tengri 6995 m

Climate: Continental, cold winters and hot summers; arid and semi-arid.

Nationality: Kazakhstani.
Population: 17,7 million (2016)
Ethnic groups: Kazakh 51.8%, Russian 31.4%, Ukrainian 4.4%, Tatar 1.7%, German 1.6%. There are over 100 other nationalities.
Religion: Sunni Muslim 47%, Russian Orthodox 44%, Protestant 2%, other 7%.
Languages: Kazakhstan is a bilingual country. Kazakh language has the status of the "state" language, while Russian is declared the "official" language. Russian is used routinely in business; 52% of population speaks Kazakh language.
Literacy: 98%

Natural resources: Major deposits of petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium.

Agriculture products: Grain (mostly spring wheat), cotton; livestock.

Industries: Oil, iron and steel; tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials.

Exports - commodities: oil and oil products, natural gas, ferrous metals, chemicals, machinery, grain, wool, meat, coal

Exports - partners: China 15.1%, Russia 12.3%, France 9.2%, Germany 7.9%, Italy 6.7%, Greece 4.1% (2015)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, metal products, foodstuffs

Imports - partners: Russia 32.9%, China 25.9%, Germany 4.2% (2015)

Currency: Tenge (KZT)

Source: Embassy of Kazakhstan in the USA and Canada and other.

Kazakhstan in Figures
Kazakhstan key statistical data.

Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

Official Sites of Kazakhstan

Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan
Official site, provides until now less information in English.

The President of Kazakhstan.

The Parliament of the Republic of Kazakhstan
Official website of the parliament (partly in English).

Ministry of Foreign Affairs
MOFA Kazakhstan.

Diplomatic Missions:
Permanent Mission of Kazakhstan to the UN
Site of the Permanent Mission to the United Nations.
Kazakh Embassy in the UK
The embassy in London provides comprehensive information about Kazakhstan.
Embassy of Kazakhstan in the USA and Canada
Washington, D.C.
Diplomatic missions abroad
Address list of Kazakh missions abroad.
Foreign Diplomatic Missions
List of foreign diplomatic missions accredited in Kazakhstan.

Agency of Statistics
Kazakhstan in figures.


Map of Kazakhstan
Political Map of Kazakhstan.
Administrative Map of Kazakhstan
Map showing the Administrativedivisions (provinces, oblast) of Kazakhstan.
Google Earth Google Earth Kazakhstan
Searchable map and satellite view of Kazakhstan.
Google Earth Google Earth Astana
Searchable map and satellite view of Kazakhstan's capital city.
Google Earth Google Earth Almaty
Searchable map and satellite view of Kazakhstan's largest city.
Google Earth Google Earth Baikonur Cosmodrome
Satellite view of Baikonur Cosmodrome space launch facility.

Caucasus and Central Asia Map
Map of Central Asia and the Caucasus region.
Map of Asia
Reference Map of Asia.

Baikonur Cosmodrome launch pad
The Soyuz TMA-16M spacecraft is seen after having rolled out by train to the launch pad at the Baikonur Cosmodrome.
Image: NASA/Bill Ingalls  


Delovaya Nedelya
Kazakhstans Business news (in Kazakh)

The Astana Times
Biweekly English-language newspaper.
Private newspaper in Russian-language.
Kazakhstanskaya Pravda
National daily newspaper online.
Kazakhstan weekly news (Russian)
Press Club
Information Center Kazakhstan (in Russian).

News Agencies
Online news with English-language pages.
Interfax Kazakhstan
Service of Russian news agency Interfax.
Official news.

Provides also news in Kazakh, Russian and English.
Broadcasting Company and News Agency of Kazakhstan.


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Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmad Yasawi in the town of Turkestan, Kazakhstan
Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmad Yasawi, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in the town of Turkestan, it is one of the largest and best-preserved constructions of the Timurid period.
Image: Petar Milošević

Arts & Culture

Central State Museum of Kazakhstan
Central State Museum in Almaty is one of the largest museums in Central Asia. The collections of the museum include about 300 thousand objects. The museum's collections offers a glimpse into the paleontological past, and of the ancient, medieval, modern and contemporary history and cultural tradition of Kazakhstan.

A. Kasteyev State Museum of Arts
The largest art museum in Kazakhstan.

National Library of the Republic of Kazakhstan
One of the largest libraries in the world. Today it is the acknowledged leader in Kazakhstani librarian science.

Business & Economy

National Bank of Kazakhstan
Central Bank of Kazakhstan.

Kazakhstan Stock Exchange
Official website of KASE.

Official website of Kazakhstan's investment promotion agency.

Kazakhstan Business Directory
Business directory of Kazakhstan.

Products of Kazakhstan
KAZ Minerals
Copper company focused on large scale, open pit mining in Kazakhstan.
The National Oil Company.


Air Astana
The flag carrier of Kazakhstan, based in Almaty, official website with information about the airline's flight schedules, routes, timetable, online booking, services and contacts.
Bek Air Airlines
Bek Air operates services to ten major cities in Kazakhstan.
SCAT Airlines
SCAT operates services to all major cities of Kazakhstan and to neighbouring countries, its hub is at Shymkent Airport (IATA: CIT).

Almaty International Airport
The official website of Almaty International Airport with news and information for passengers and businesses includes online flight information, map and airport details.

Kazakhstan Temir Zholy - KTZ
The national railway company of Kazakhstan.
Markakol reserve, Altay Mountains
Forestry officers in Markakol reserve, Altay Mountains, East Kazakhstan.
Image: Dmitry A. Mottl

Travel and Tour Consumer Information

Destination Kazakhstan - Travel and Tour Guides

Discover Kazakhstan
Cities: Astana, Almaty

Find accommodation, hotels, attractions, festivals, events, tourist boards, and much more.
Starting point for visiting Kazakhstan's natural treasures.

About Kazakhstan
Site provides genaral touristic information about Kazakhstan.

Tourism in Kazakhstan
The site offers all about tourism in Kazakhstan. Maps, hotels, agencies, articles, photos, tours (until 2003).

Wild Natures - Holidays in Kazakhstan
Site provides touristic opportunities in the region of the Aksu-Djabagly nature reserve in Southern Kazakhstan.


Al-Farabi Kazakh State National University
Homepage of the University (Russian)
Kainar University
Founded in 1991 (in Russian).
Kazakh-American University
First independent University in the Republic (Russian)
The Kazakh National Agrarian University
Established in April 1996.
Kazakh National University of Arts
Kazakhstan's higher education institution for the Arts.

Environment & Nature

Kazakhstan has some serious environmental issues, like radiation from the former Soviet nuclear testing site Semipalatinsk (near Semey), the shrinking of the Aral sea, once the fourth largest lake in the world, and the desertification of former agricultural land, affecting the health and living conditions of rural inhabitants. Many of these issues are in large a legacy of the Soviet Union.

Green Salvation
Web site of the Ecological Society Green Salvation, Almaty.

United Nations Development Program (UNDP) in Kazakhstan
About the work of UNDP, includes information on UNDP Kazakhstan's activity in the area of Environment and Sustainable Development.

Nature reserves of Kazakhstan
Information about the various nature reserves of Kazakhstan.


An ancient land of the Kazakhs
About the origin of Kazakhstan's native people.

History of Kazakhstan
Wikipedia entry about Kazakhstan's history.

Search Kazakhstan
Provides an index of Kazakhstan related sites.
Kazakhstan search engine (in Russian).

Sources and additional Information about Kazakhstan

BBC Country Profile: Kazakhstan

Amnesty International: Kazakhstan

FAO: Kazakhstan

GlobalEDGE: Kazakhstan

The Heritage Foundation: Kazakhstan

Human Rights Watch: Kazakhstan

OEC: Kazakhstan

Reporters Without Borders: Kazakhstan

Wikipedia: Kazakhstan

The World Factbook -- Kazakhstan

 Support UNICEF

Other Countries in Central Asia:
Afghanistan | Iran | Kyrgyzstan | Tajikistan | Turkmenistan | Uzbekistan

Countries in South Central Asia:
 Bangladesh | Bhutan | India | Maldives | Nepal | Pakistan | Sri Lanka