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Flag of Russia
Flag of the Sovietunion
Russia is bordered by 14 countries: Azerbaijan, Belarus, China, Estonia, Finland, Georgia, Kazakhstan, North Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Mongolia, Norway, Poland, and Ukraine. Furthermore it shares maritime borders with Japan, Sweden, Turkey and the United States.
With an area of 17,098,242 km² the country is somewhat larger than twice the size of the contiguous United States, it is the largest country in the world, covering more than 11% of Earth's land areas.
But vast regions of the country were uninhabited or uninhabitable. Russia is a country with a very low population density (8.5 people/km², compared Germany 226 people/km², USA about 33 people/km²). But still, Russia has a population of 146 million people (in 2016). Moscow is the capital and core of political power and the center of culture, and trade, St. Petersburg is Russia's second largest city and an important Russian port on the Baltic Sea.
Russian Federation | Rossiyskaya Federatsiya
The double-headed eagle is the State Seal of the Russian Federation.
The defeat of the Russian Empire in World War I led to the seizure of power by the communists and the formation of the USSR.
The brutal rule of Josef STALIN (1924-53) strengthened Russian dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives. The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the following decades until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered the USSR into 15 independent republics.
Since then, Russia has struggled in its efforts to build a democratic political system and market economy to replace the strict social, political, and economic controls of the communist period. A determined guerrilla conflict still plagues Russia in Chechnya.
(Source: CIA - The World Factbook)
short form: Rossiya
int'l long form: Russian Federation
int'l short form: Russia
former: Russian Empire, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
ISO Country Code: ru
Local Time = UTC +3h
Actual Time: Novosibirsk:
Local Time = UTC +6h
Daylight Saving Time (DST) March - October
Country Calling Code: +7
Capital City: Moscow (pop. 8.3 million)
St. Petersburg (4.6 million), Novosibirsk (1.4 million), Nizhniy Novgorod (1.3 million)
Independence: August 24, 1991.
Location: Northern Asia (that part west of the Urals is included with Europe), bordering the Arctic Ocean, between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean.
Area: 17 million km² (6.5 million sq. mi.); about 1.8 times the size of the United States.
Terrain: Broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains (Caucasus range) along southern borders.
Climate: Northern continental, from subarctic to subtropical.
Population: (2016) 146 million.
Ethnic groups: Russian 81%, Tatar 4%, Ukrainian 3%, other 12%.
Religion: Russian Orthodox, Islam, Judaism, Roman Catholicism, Protestant, Buddhist, other.
Language: Russian (official); more than 140 other languages and dialects.
Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas, timber, furs, precious and nonferrous metals.
Agriculture products: Grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, vegetables, fruits; beef, milk.
Industries: Complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space vehicles; shipbuilding; road and rail transportation equipment; communications equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors, and construction equipment; electric power generating and transmitting equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables, textiles, foodstuffs, handicrafts.
Exports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, metals, wood and wood products, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and military manufactures
Exports partners: Netherlands 11.9%, China 8.3%, Germany 7.4%, Italy 6.5%, Turkey 5.6%, Belarus 4.4%, Japan 4.2% (2015)
Imports - commodities: machinery, vehicles, pharmaceutical products, plastic, semi-finished metal products, meat, fruits and nuts, optical and medical instruments, iron, steel
Imports partners: China 19.2%, Germany 11.2%, USA 6.4%, Belarus 4.8%, Italy 4.6% (2015)
Currency: Russian Ruble (RUR)
Image: Ed Parsons
Russia is a federal republic and in theory a multi-party representative democracy, wherein the President is the head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of government. The President is also the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. Russia's legislature is the bi-cameral Federal Assembly of Russia (parliament), which consists of the State Duma (lower house), and the Federation Council (upper house), headed by the Chairman of the Federation Council (speaker).
Official Sites of RussiaNote: External links will open in a new browser window.
Russia's Home Page.
President of Russia
The official website of Russia's president, who is again Vladimir Putin.
The bicameral Federal Assembly of Russia (Legislative)
Council of Federation
The upper chamber of the Russian parliament.
The State Duma is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
The Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs is government institution in charge the foreign policy and foreign relations of Russia. The website also provides information about Russian diplomatic missions abroad.
Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation to the UN
Russia is one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council.
Embassy of the Russian Federation in the USA
State Comittee of the Russian Federation on Statistics.
Interstate Statistical Committee of the CIS
Official statistical information on social and economic situation in the CIS countries.
Map of Russia
Political Map of the Russian Federation.
Map of European Russia
Political map of European Russia.
Google Earth Russian Federation
Searchable map and satellite view of Russian Federation.
Google Earth Map of Moscow
Searchable map and satellite view of the capital, Moscow.
Google Earth Map of Moscow Kremlin
Labeled map/satellite view of the Moscow Kremlin.
Maps of Russian Cities:
Searchable map and satellite view of Russia's Winter Olympic capital 2014.
Russia - Autonomous Areas in Russia
Chechenya (Chechen Republic) Map
Ethnolinguistic Groups of the Caucasus Region
Map of Central and Eastern Europe
Political map of Central and Eastern Europe.
Map of the Baltic Sea Area
Political map of the Baltic Sea region.
Map of the Caspian Sea
Map of the Caspian Sea with surrounding Countries.
Map of Europe
Political Map of Europe.
Map of Asia
Reference Map of Asia.
Russia Today (RT), an international English-language news station is state-funded and aims to present "global news from a Russian perspective". However many observers have accused the pro-Kremlin TV (RT) of spreading disinformation and conducting an information war both at home and abroad.
(Source: BBC and nationsonline.org)
Russian Newspapers and News Agencies
Russian News Agency (in Russian).
Interfax Information Services Group
International website of Interfax.
Formerly Itar-Tass, Russian News Agency.
Russian Newspapers (in Russian)
Saint Petersburg based daily business newspaper.
Online portal of the broadsheet newspaper with national and international news (in Russian).
The Moscow Times
News on Moscow, Russia and the world (in English).
National and international news.
Business News Agency.
Vladivostok News on-line.
NTV (Cyrillic: НТВ)
Homepage of the critical independent TV-Station they try to took over (in Russian).
RT (Russia Today)
Russian propaganda TV and online magazine funded by the Russian government.
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Image: Andrew Shiva
Arts & Culture
TC Art Gallery
by Catherine Yakovina, St. Petersburg.
The State Hermitage Museum
St Petersburg - Presents the development of the world culture and art from the Stone Age to the 20th century.
The Moscow Kremlin
Official website of the Kremlin Museum - the oldest museum in Russia.
Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts
The Museum has one of the most representative collection in Russia of foreign art dated from ancient times to modern days.
State Russian Museum
The State Russian Museum in St. Petersburg is the world’s largest collection of Russian art.
The State Tretyakov Gallery
One of the largest museums in Russia with more than 100 000 works of art, the museum of the history of Russian art presents icons, paintings, graphics and sculpture,.
Museums in Russia (official list)
Detailed information about any Russian museum. The official list of russian museums, more than 3000 museums listed.
Bulgakov Museum Moscow
Russian writer, physician and playwright, author of The Master and Margarita and Heart of a Dog.
National Library of Russia
The country's oldest state library, St. Petersburg.
Russian State Library
The largest library in Europe and the second largest in the world, Moscow.
United Space Of Humanity - the condition of the website suggests that humanity is suffering.
Institute of the Information Society - Russia
IIS.RU an independent non-government organization for Information Society development in Russia.
Native - Russians indigenous peoplesCulture Center of the Northern Asian First Peoples' Art
For foreigner's & our first people's information, founded '96 in Ulan -Ude (Buryatia, Russia).
The Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District is a member of the Russian Federation, named after the native peoples Khanty and Mansi.
Site related to the Republic of Tuva, the former Tannu Tuva, a country in south Siberia, and a member of the Russian Federation (in Russian), see also Friends of Tuva.
Image: Alex 'Florstein' Fedorov
© UNESCO Author: Francesco Bandarin
Business & Economy
Bank of Russia
The Central Bank of the Russian Federation.
Moscow Central Stock Exchange
The largest exchange group in the Russian Federation.
American-Russian Chamber of Commerce and Industry
The U.S.-Russia Chamber of Commerce (USRCC), a 501(c)(6) nonprofit organization headquartered Houston, Texas.
Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Russian Federation
Our goal is to promote the growth of the Russian economy, clear trade barriers and support investment initiatives.
Russian National Trade Point
Russia Foreign Trade Center is included in the World Trade Point Federation (WTPF).
The Russian flag carrier.
East Line Group
Group of companies for air transportation and airport management at Domodedovo International Airport.
Russia and abroad services.
Transaero Airlines serves domestic destinations and operates flights to Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and North America. Transaero filed for bankruptcy on 1 October 2015.
UTair is one of the five largest air carriers of Russia and the largest Russian helicopter airline.
JSC "Russian Railways"
Official website of Russian Railways, with information on passenger and freight transportation; Online services, Infrastructure, railway maps.
Railway Ticket Reservation Center
Railway adventure in Russia.
Railway guide with a photo-gallery of stations, views and bridges.
Image: Uwe Brodrecht
Image: Arkady Zarubin
Travel and Tour Consumer Information
Destination Russia - Travel and Tour Guides
Discover Russia: Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Irkutsk, Ulan-Ude, Novosibirsk, Kamchatka, Lake Baikal, Sochi, Vladivostok, Trans-Siberian Railroad.
Find accommodation, hotels, attractions, festivals, events, tourist boards, biking, skiing, hiking, climbing, cruising, diving, adventure tours and much more.
Travel in Russia, very official information by The Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation's Federal Agency for Tourism.
Travel Guide to Russia
Russian National Tourist Office in the UK.
Russian National Group
Russian National Tourist Office in the US.
Comprehensive guide to Russia and a travel services directory.
Moscow Mayor official website.
Moscow Tourism web site.
Official portal to St. Petersburg, offering a wide variety of information about the city and its life.
Official city tourist portal of St. Petersburg.
City of Perm
Grand Hotel Europe
Russia's oldest operating grand hotel, founded 1703.
BBC News about the Caucasus region.
Image: Alex 'Florstein' Fedorov
Image: Uwe Brodrecht
Education & Research
The Moscow State University
Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU), a public research university founded in 1755.
Russian Academy of Science
Russias national academy currently includes more than 600 institutions and over 50,000 scientific researchers.
Saint-Petersburg State University
The oldest Russian university is a state-owned higher education institution based in Saint Petersburg.
Samara State Aerospace University
SSAU trains specialists for the rocket and space, aviation, electronic, metallurgical, and automotive industries.
Samara State University
A leading multi-faculty university in the city of Samara.
Tyumen State University
The first university n Tyumen Oblast consists today of 12 institutes and trains specialists in 175 fields.
Russian Space Research
Astronomical Department of Saint Petersburg State University.
Space Research Institute (IKI)
Investigations of Outer Space.
Google Earth Baikonur Cosmodrome
Satellite view of the Russian Baikonur Cosmodrome space launch facility in Kazakhstan.
Environment & Nature
Anti-nuclear and safe energy movement.
Greenpeace organization of Russia.
The Socio-Ecological Union is the only international ecological organization born in the USSR.
History of Russia
An overview on Russians history by interKnowledge.
Russian and Soviet history - bibliographical, research and teaching aids
Museum of History of Moscow.
Russian History Websites
The history of the Romanovs, Russian art and architecture.
Russian search engine and one of the largest Russian web portals. (in Russian).
Russia On The Net
Was one of the first Russian Net directories. The domain is now on sale for about 150.000 $US.
Sources and additional Information on Russia
Amnesty International: Russia
BBC Country Profile: Russia
The Heritage Foundation: Russia
Human Rights Watch: Russia
Reporters Without Borders: Russia
The World Factbook -- Russia
Other Countries of Eastern Europe:
Belarus | Bulgaria | Czech Republic | Hungary | Moldova
Poland | Romania | Slovakia | Ukraine
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