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Denmark, in west by the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France, in south by Switzerland, and Austria, in east by the Czech Republic, and Poland. Additionally the country shares maritime borders with Sweden, and the United Kingdom.
An area of 357,022 km² making Germany the seventh largest country in Europe, compared it is about two-thirds the size of France, or slightly smaller than the U.S. state of Montana.
Germany has a population of 81,7 million people (2015); capital and largest city is Berlin with about 3.3 million inhabitants.
Official language is German (Standard German, German: Hochdeutsch), a variety of German dialects are spoken in specific regions. About 50 % of the Germans are able to speak English as a second language.
Federal Republic of Germany | Deutschland
The Federal Republic of Germany is located in the heart of Europe. The nation-state now known as Germany was first unified in 1871 as a modern federal state, the German Empire.
In the first half of the 20th century two devastating World Wars, of which Germany was responsible for, left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers.
With the advent of the Cold War, two German states were formed in 1949: the western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR).
The democratic FRG embedded itself in key western economic and security organizations, the EC and NATO, while the communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the USSR and the fall of Communism enabled Germany's unification in 1990.
With the unification of the two German states, the country became Europe's most populous nation and strengthened its role as a key member of the European Union and of the continent's economic, political, and security organizations.
local short form: Deutschland
int'l long form: Federal Republic of Germany
int'l short form: Germany
former: German Empire, German Republic, German Reich.
ISO Country Code: DE - DEU - .de
Time zone: Central European Time (CET)
Actual Time : Tue-Mar-19 00:46
Local Time : CET = UTC +1h
Daylight Saving Time (DST) March - October (UTC +2)
Country Calling Code: +49
Capital City: Berlin
Former (transitional) Capital City: Bonn
Bremen (543 000), Dortmund (592 000), Dresden, Düsseldorf (568,000), Essen (603 000), Frankfurt (644 000), Hamburg (1.7 million), Hannover (516 000), Köln (964 000), München (1.2 million), Stuttgart (582 000)
Type: Democratic-parliamentary federal state
Founded: 1949 (Basic Law, i.e., Constitution, promulgated on 23 May 1949).
On the 3rd October 1990, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic unified in accordance with Article 23 of the FRG Basic Law.
Location: Central Europe bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea in north.
Area: 357 031 km² (137 850 sq. mi.)
Terrain: Low plain in the north; high plains, hills, and basins in the center and east; mountainous alpine region in the south.
Highest mountain: Zugspitze 2 962 m.
Climate: Generally moderate continental climate without sustained periods of cold or heat, maritime climate in the North, in the South mountain climate in the Alpine regions.
Population: 81,7 million (2015)
Ethnic groups: Primarily German; Danish minority in the north, Sorbian (Slavic) minority in the east; 8.2 million foreign residents, 10% of the population (2015).
Religions: Protestants (27.9 million), Catholics (27.3 million); approximately 3.2 million Muslims.
Language: German, second languages: English, French, Turkish.
Natural resources: Coal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber, arable land.
Agriculture products: Potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; cattle, pigs, poultry.
Industries: Among the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, food and beverages; shipbuilding; textiles.
Exports - commodities: motor vehicles, machinery, chemicals, computer and electronic products, electrical equipment, pharmaceuticals, metals, transport equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, rubber and plastic products.
Exports partners: USA 9.6%, France 8.6%, UK 7.5%, Netherlands 6.6%, China 6%, Italy 4.9%, Austria 4.8%, Poland 4.4%, Switzerland 4.2% (2015)
Imports - commodities: machinery, data processing equipment, vehicles, chemicals, oil and gas, metals, electric equipment, pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, agricultural products.
Imports partners: Netherlands 13.7%, France 7.6%, China 7.3%, Belgium 6%, Italy 5.2%, Poland 5%, USA 4.7%, Czech Republic 4.5%, UK 4.2%, Austria 4.2%, Switzerland 4.2% (2015)
Currency: Euro (EUR)
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Germany is a federal, parliamentary, representative democratic republic. Its political system is based on the constitutional law, known as the Grundgesetz (Basic Law) Germany's constitutional law was approved on 8 May 1949 in the city of Bonn, at that time the provisional German capital. The Federal Government and cabinet is made up of the Federal Chancellor and 15 Federal Ministers. Chief of state is the Federal President (Bundespräsident), but his role is more ceremonial, head of government and the nation's leading political figure is the chancellor (Bundeskanzler).
Official Government SitesNote: External links will open in a new browser window.
Home page of the President of the Federal Republic of Germany, the Federal President is the head of state.
Official site of the German Federal Government.
The Foreign Office of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The German UN Mission
Homepage of the Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations.
The German Embassy
German Information Center, Washington D.C. provides comprehensive background information on Germany.
German Missions abroad
List of German Missions worldwide.
Addresses of Foreign Missions in Germany
List of addresses of Missions of foreign countries in Germany (in German).
The German Federal States
More Links and Information on and about all German Federal States.
Statisches Bundesamt Deutschland
The Federal Statistical Office provides Human Geography Data Collections.
Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD)
Meteorology and Climatology.
Map of Germany
Political Map of Germany.
Administrative Map of Germany
Map showing the federal states of Germany.
Google Map Germany (Deutschland)
Searchable map of Germany.
Information and searchable maps of major German Cities:
Berlin, Bremen, Dresden, Düsseldorf, Erfurt, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Hannover, Kiel, Köln, Magdeburg, Mainz, München, Potsdam, Saarbrücken, Schwerin, Stuttgart, Wiesbaden
Maps of the German States
Map of the Baltic Sea Area
Political map of the Baltic Sea region.
Map of Europe
Political Map of Europe.
Deutsche Welle (DW) [German Wave]
News and information in 35 languages.
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung - FAZ
Last but not least the FAZ online! (in German).
National and international news.
Website of the weekly news magazine (in German - partly in English).
Daily business and financial publication (English summaries).
Internet distributed News site (in German)
Retrieves articles of the latest news (in German).
Since more than 50ty years sophisticated News. (German, partly English)
Weekly Magazine (German).
German TV News. (German).
Weekly News and background information (in German).
Initiative Nachrichtenaufklärung (INA)
Founded in May 1997, in order to publish once in the year a rank list of the most neglected topics and news in the media of the Federal Republic of Germany.
German Newspapers online
More links to German newspapers online.
Bookmark/share this page
Arts & Culture
Deutsche Kultur International
Information on German cultural exchange and international cultural relations.
Important exhibition of contemporary planetary art, Kassel.
Alexander von Humboldt
In search of knowledge far beyond the horizons of his time.
Goethe-Institut / Inter Nationes
Institution for cultural, social and political communication between Germany and foreign countries in the media area.
MASALA Welt-Beat Festival
Summer in the City of Hannover, World Beat Festival, traditional and modern world music (site in German).
Monopol - Magazin für Kunst und Leben
Official Website of The House of Hohenzollern.
__German Literature (very small selection)
The International Brecht Society Homepage, dedicated to the works and thought of Brecht.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Wikipedia entry about J.W. Goethe, one of the key figures of German literature.
The Grimm Brothers
Well known for their Children's and Household Tales (Grimms' Fairy Tales, compiled by D. L. Ashliman)
Fairy Tales by the Grimm Brothers
Web edition of tales from the Grimm Brothers' Kinder- und Hausmärchen (in German and English)
The Steppenwolf's page (in English and German).
Thomas Mann (Buddenbrookhaus)
Maybe you will miss Felix Krull at Buddenbrookhaus somehow; (in German).
Site about the storyteller by the Karl May Foundation (in German).
The world's greatest space adventure series, in print since 1961.
Die Deutsche Bibliothek
The national library and national bibliographic information centre.
Schiller-Nationalmuseum / Deutsches Literaturarchiv
Schiller National Museum / German Literature Archive, Marbach. Collection and research of the newer German literature.
New books in German
The web site presents regular reviews of new titles of contemporary German literature, particularly recommended for translation into English.
__German Cyberspace Culture
Platform for the right of digital freedom (in German)
An independent information and communication platform in the field of Internet and politics (German)
First solution-oriented and advertising-free online medium from Germany (in German).
Space in TV.
German Internet Culture.
Int. Timezones, the exact time for every place on the world by Martin Zwernemann
The Bauhaus, founded in Weimar 1919 by Walter Gropius, until today one of the most famous and most avant-garde art and design schools.
Bauhaus-Archiv Museum für Gestaltung
The bauhaus-archive museum of design.
Bauhaus Dessau Foundation
Preserves and conveys the historic heritage of the Bauhaus.
Museum of natural science and technology.
Kunst- und Ausstellungshalle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland - Bonn
The Art and Exhibition Hall of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Museum Ludwig - Cologne
The collection comprises the most important stages and positions in the development of 20th century and contemporary art.
Natural History Museum, Frankfurt.
Pinakothek der Moderne
One of the world's largest museums of modern art, based in Munich.
Staatliche Museen zu Berlin - Preussischer Kulturbesitz
Various Collections and exhibitions.
A Linklist of German Museums (German).
Museen und Ausstellungen
Guide to Museums & Exhibitions of the German-speaking world (in German).
Götterdämmerung, Meistersinger, Lohengrin, Rheingold, Siegfried, etc.
Mensch - contemporary German music.
More or less, the greatest world music event.
Contemporary German music.
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Business & Economy
The German economy is the fifth largest economy in the world in PPP terms and Europe's largest. Germany is a leading exporter of machinery, vehicles, chemicals, and household equipment and benefits from a highly skilled labor force. Like its Western European neighbors, Germany faces significant demographic challenges to sustained long-term growth. Low fertility rates and declining net immigration are increasing pressure on the country's social welfare system and necessitate structural reforms.
Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Arbeit
The Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour.
Bundesagentur für Aussenwirtschaft (bfai)
The German Office for Foreign Trade offers a wide range of useful information about business opportunities.
Deutsche Börse AG
German Stock Exchange.
The Germany Central bank.
Deutsche Industrie- und Handelskammertag (DIHK)
The Association of German Chambers of Industry and Commerce (DIHK) is the central organisation for 82 German chambers.
Do's and Don'ts
The Devil is in the Details
Etiquette Tips for Business Professionals.
The German Airline.
Germany's second largest airline, after Lufthansa.
Cologne-Bonn based low fare airline, offers flights all over Europe.
Low cost airline offers flights to destinations in France, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom; owned by
One of the world's largest travel and tourism business.
Thomas Cook Airlines (Condor)
German based airline offers 65 destinations worldwide.
List of international airports in Germany:
Düsseldorf International Airport
Hanover International Airport
Köln Bonn Airport
München Franz Josef Strauß
Münster Osnabrück International Airport
Nuremberg Airport (Flughafen Nürnberg)
Deutsche Bahn AG
The former "Deutsche Bundesbahn".
Timetable and Tickets of Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn train connections and ticket order.
German Brand Names
Abeking & Rasmussen
Yacht- and Boatyard
Formerly a great name in consumer electronic.
A typical German Car
A typical Bavarian Car
Typical German Car
Also a very typical German Car
A very typical German Car.
Business Crime Control e.V.
Civil rights movement devoted to combating business crime (in German).
Made in Germany - Information on German Brands.
Photo © nationsonline.org
Travel and Tour Consumer Information
Destination Germany - Travel and Tour Guides
Discover Germany: Berlin, Hamburg, Köln (Cologne), München (Munich), Oktoberfest, Black Forest, German Alps, Bodensee (Lake of Constance), Zugspitze.
Accommodation, hotels, attractions, festivals, events, tourist boards, biking, skiing, hiking, climbing, tours and much more.
German National Tourist Board
Germany - anything but typical, offers all the information for visitors of Germany.
Portal of the Federal Republic of Germany, offers a representative collection of essential references to German information on the internet.
Tatsachen über Deutschland
Facts about Germany--the Federal Foreign Office provides up-to-date information on the Federal Republic of Germany.
The German Embassy at Washington provides also information on the country.
The German Way
Germany for Visitors - made by a visitor.
The official tourism site of Berlin.
Official website of the City of Cologne.
Munich ( München )
Bavaria's capital city online.
Official City Sites
Images of the Old City of Frankfurt am Main, once Europe's largest preserved medieval city
The Official Web Site of the City of Cologne
The Official Web Site of the City of Munich
Websites of German cities usually use the city name plus the .de extension, e.g.: Heidelberg.de
Tourism Guides for the German Federal States and Regions
A guide to Baden-Württemberg.
Information for the Lake of Constance region.
The official Black Forest Hompage, one of the famoust and popular holiday regions in Germany.
Image: kk nationsonline.org
The Bavarian Tourist Board, information about Bavarian tourism and tourism resorts.
German Alpine Road - Deutsche Alpenstrasse
Information on the German Alpine Road.
This world famous and biggest public festival in the world attracts around 6 million visitors every year.
Website about Germany's highest peak.
Brandenburg as a holiday destination.
Hessen Touristik Service
Tourist Guide Hesse, the Official Site (in German)
Discover the East of North Germany.
Official tourism guide Lower-Saxony.
Official tourism guide of North Rhine-Westphalia.
Guide to the Rhineland-Palatinate's seven holiday regions.
Urlaub im Saarland
A tourist guide to Saarland (in German only).
Saxony-Anhalt tourism (in German).
Schleswig - Holstein Tourismus
Schleswig - Holstein tourism guide (in German only).
Image: Jiali Xu
More Guides to Germany
Image: M. Weitzel
Education & Research
Deutsche Bildungsserver (DBS)
The internet guide to the German education system (in German and English).
Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam (AIP)
Cosmic Magnetic Fields, Solar- and Stellar Activity and Extragalactic Astrophysics and Cosmology.
Berlin-Brandenburgischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities.
Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie
The German Psychological Society.
DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung
The German Institute for Standardization.
Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft
The German Physical Society.
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft und Raumfahrt DLR
Germany's national space agency.
Development of innovations in key technologies.
Science magazine (in German).
Geography related Library Service by the University Library, Göttingen (SUB) and the University Library "Georgius Agricola" of Freiberg.
Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum für Informationstechnik
Fast Algorithms, Fast Computers.
The Max Planck Society for the Advancement of the Sciences.
RWTH - Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule
Founded in 1737.
Heidelberg, founded in 1386.
Universität zu Köln
The University of Cologne is one of the largest universities in Germany, founded in 1388.
One of the leading research institutions in Germany.
A public research university in Munich.
Research university with campuses in Munich, Garching and Freising-Weihenstephan.
C.v.O. Universität Oldenburg
Social Sciences, Arts and Humanities, Education, Economics.
The history of the university begins in 1612 (in German).
One of Germany's most famous and oldest universities, noted in medicine, natural sciences, and the humanities, founded in 1477.
More links to German Universities
Image: Dr. Bernd Gross
Environment & Nature
Links to federal organizations and NGO's with activities in key issues in environmental politics like Climate Protection, Energy Politics, Globalization, Nature Conservation and Sustainable Development.
Federal Environmental Agency.
Forum Umwelt und Entwicklung
Forum on Environment & Development founded by leading German NGO's.
Aktionsgemeinschaft Solidarische Welt e.V.
Since 1957 Action for World Solidarity (ASW) supports small, self- initiated groups in India, Africa and Brazil.
Bund für Umwelt und Naturschutz Deutschland e. V.
Alliance for environment and nature conservation, the German branch of Friends of the Earth.
Deutscher Naturschutzring e.V.
Umbrella organization for German environmental organizations (in German).
The German branch of Greenpeace.
World Wide Fund for Nature, Germany.
Image: kk nationsonline.org
Heritage & History
The 750 years old cathedral of Cologne.
A play of life and death, promised in a moment of mortal threat. Passion play since 1634.
Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin - Preußischer Kulturbesitz
The official web site of the Berlin State Library - Prussian Cultural Heritage.
Scientific collection of links of the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin (in German).
60 Years Federal Republic Germany
An abstract of the history of the German Federal Republic .
Short History of Germany
Outline of Germany's History.
Deutsches Archäologisches Institut
Research in archaeology and related fields.
Deutsches Historisches Museum
The German Historical Museum, Berlin.
Facts about Germany: History
Comprehensive information about German's history from the Middle Ages to present.
Virtual Library Geschichte
VL Geschichte presents academically valuable websites on historical topics (in German).
Haus der Geschichte
Monumenta Germaniae Historica (Dt. Institut f. Erforschung des Mittelalters)
German Research Institute for the Middle Ages (German).
__Additional Information on Germans History
History of Germany
Comprehensive information about the history of Germany, from Wikipedia.
Images: © kk nationsonline.org
Goethe-Institut - German Language
The Goethe-Institut, a non-profit German cultural association operational worldwide, offers German courses and exams in more than 90 countries.
Duden is a dictionary of the German language, first published by Konrad Duden in 1880. It is the authority for all questions about German language and spelling.
German - English Dictionary - TU Chemnitz
A dictionary based on more than 700,000 word translations German-English.
LEO's English - German dictionary
English <-> German dictionary online contains 370,730 entries in its database and has a discussion forum (your not alone).
Search engine for german sites (in German).
Open Directory: Germany
Sources and additional Information about Germany
Amnesty International: Germany
BBC Country Profile: Germany
The Heritage Foundation: Germany
Human Rights Watch: Germany
Reporters Without Borders: Germany
The World Factbook -- Germany
Major German Cities:
Berlin, Bremen, Dresden, Düsseldorf, Erfurt, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Hannover, Kiel, Köln, Magdeburg,
Mainz, München, Potsdam, Saarbrücken, Schwerin, Stuttgart, Wiesbaden
Major Cities in Western Europe
Amsterdam, Berlin, Bern, Brussels, Bordeaux, Frankfurt, The Hague, Hamburg, Köln (Cologne),
Luxembourg City, Marseille, Monaco, München (Munich), Paris, Rotterdam, Strasbourg, Stuttgart,
Toulouse, Vaduz, Vienna (Wien), Zürich
Other Countries in Western Europe
Austria | Belgium | France | Liechtenstein | Luxembourg | Monaco | Netherlands | Switzerland
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