One World
Nations Online

Germany Flag detail
Home Earth Continents Europe Germany   The German Federal States

___ Germany

Zugspitze summit and Höllentalferner glacier, highest mountain in Germany
The Zugspitze summit seen from the Alpspitze with the Höllentalferner glacier. With 2,962 m it is Germany's highest mountain.
Image: Christian Nawroth
Flag of Germany
German Flag
Location map of Germany. Germany in Europe
Location map of Germany
Destination Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, a sovereign state in Central Europe, bordered in north by the North Sea, the Baltic Sea and Denmark, in west by the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France, in south by Switzerland, and Austria, in east by the Czech Republic, and Poland. Additionally the country shares maritime borders with Sweden, and the United Kingdom.

An area of 357,022 km² making Germany the seventh largest country in Europe, compared it is about two-thirds the size of France, or slightly smaller than the U.S. state of Montana.

Germany has a population of 81,7 million people (2015); capital and largest city is Berlin with about 3.3 million inhabitants.

Official language is German (Standard German, German: Hochdeutsch), a variety of German dialects are spoken in specific regions. About 50 % of the Germans are able to speak English as a second language.

Federal Republic of Germany | Deutschland

Country Profile

The Federal Republic of Germany is located in the heart of Europe. The nation-state now known as Germany was first unified in 1871 as a modern federal state, the German Empire.
In the first half of the 20th century two devastating World Wars, of which Germany was responsible for, left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers.
With the advent of the Cold War, two German states were formed in 1949: the western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR).
The democratic FRG embedded itself in key western economic and security organizations, the EC and NATO, while the communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the USSR and the fall of Communism enabled Germany's unification in 1990.
With the unification of the two German states, the country became Europe's most populous nation and strengthened its role as a key member of the European Union and of the continent's economic, political, and security organizations.

Official Name:
Bundesrepublik Deutschland

local short form: Deutschland
int'l long form: Federal Republic of Germany
int'l short form: Germany
former: German Empire, German Republic, German Reich.

ISO Country Code: DE - DEU - .de

Time zone: Central European Time (CET)
Actual Time : Mon-July-22  18:02
Local Time : CET = UTC +1h
Daylight Saving Time (DST) March - October (UTC +2)

Country Calling Code: +49

Capital City: Berlin
Former (transitional) Capital City: Bonn

Major Cities:
(city population)
Bremen (543 000), Dortmund (592 000), Dresden, Düsseldorf (568,000), Essen (603 000), Frankfurt (644 000), Hamburg (1.7 million), Hannover (516 000), Köln (964 000), München (1.2 million), Stuttgart (582 000)

Type: Democratic-parliamentary federal state
Founded: 1949 (Basic Law, i.e., Constitution, promulgated on 23 May 1949).
On the 3rd October 1990, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic unified in accordance with Article 23 of the FRG Basic Law.

Location: Central Europe bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea in north.
Area: 357 031 km² (137 850 sq. mi.)
Terrain: Low plain in the north; high plains, hills, and basins in the center and east; mountainous alpine region in the south.
Highest mountain: Zugspitze 2 962 m.

Climate: Generally moderate continental climate without sustained periods of cold or heat, maritime climate in the North, in the South mountain climate in the Alpine regions.

Nationality: German(s)
Population: 81,7 million (2015)
Ethnic groups: Primarily German; Danish minority in the north, Sorbian (Slavic) minority in the east; 8.2 million foreign residents, 10% of the population (2015).
Religions: Protestants (27.9 million), Catholics (27.3 million); approximately 3.2 million Muslims.
Language: German, second languages: English, French, Turkish.

Natural resources: Coal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber, arable land.

Agriculture products: Potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; cattle, pigs, poultry.

Industries: Among the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, food and beverages; shipbuilding; textiles.

Exports - commodities: motor vehicles, machinery, chemicals, computer and electronic products, electrical equipment, pharmaceuticals, metals, transport equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, rubber and plastic products.

Exports partners: USA 9.6%, France 8.6%, UK 7.5%, Netherlands 6.6%, China 6%, Italy 4.9%, Austria 4.8%, Poland 4.4%, Switzerland 4.2% (2015)

Imports - commodities: machinery, data processing equipment, vehicles, chemicals, oil and gas, metals, electric equipment, pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, agricultural products.

Imports partners: Netherlands 13.7%, France 7.6%, China 7.3%, Belgium 6%, Italy 5.2%, Poland 5%, USA 4.7%, Czech Republic 4.5%, UK 4.2%, Austria 4.2%, Switzerland 4.2% (2015)

Currency: Euro (EUR)
Reichstag building in Berlin
Relaxed citizens in front of the Reichstag building in Berlin. It is since 1999 seat of the German parliament, officially: Deutscher Bundestag, Germany's only constitutional body. A full restoration of the historical Neorenaissance building was made after German's reunification on 3 October 1990.
Image: kk

Political system
Germany is a federal, parliamentary, representative democratic republic. Its political system is based on the constitutional law, known as the Grundgesetz (Basic Law) Germany's constitutional law was approved on 8 May 1949 in the city of Bonn, at that time the provisional German capital. The Federal Government and cabinet is made up of the Federal Chancellor and 15 Federal Ministers. Chief of state is the Federal President (Bundespräsident), but his role is more ceremonial, head of government and the nation's leading political figure is the chancellor (Bundeskanzler).

Official Government Sites

Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

Home page of the President of the Federal Republic of Germany, the Federal President is the head of state.

Bundesregierung online
Official site of the German Federal Government.

Auswärtiges Amt
The Foreign Office of the Federal Republic of Germany.

Diplomatic Missions
The German UN Mission
Homepage of the Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations.
The German Embassy
German Information Center, Washington D.C. provides comprehensive background information on Germany.
German Missions abroad
List of German Missions worldwide.
Addresses of Foreign Missions in Germany
List of addresses of Missions of foreign countries in Germany (in German).

The German Federal States
More Links and Information on and about all German Federal States.

Statisches Bundesamt Deutschland
The Federal Statistical Office provides Human Geography Data Collections.

Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD)
Meteorology and Climatology.

Germany Maps

Map of Germany
Political Map of Germany.
Administrative Map of Germany
Map showing the federal states of Germany.

Google Earth Google Map Germany (Deutschland)
Searchable map of Germany.

Information and searchable maps of major German Cities:
Berlin, Bremen, Dresden, Düsseldorf, Erfurt, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Hannover, Kiel, Köln, Magdeburg, Mainz, München, Potsdam, Saarbrücken, Schwerin, Stuttgart, Wiesbaden

Maps of the German States

Map of the Baltic Sea Area
Political map of the Baltic Sea region.
Map of Europe
Political Map of Europe.


German News

great site Deutsche Welle (DW) [German Wave]
News and information in 35 languages.
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung - FAZ
Last but not least the FAZ online! (in German).
Frankfurter Rundschau
National and international news.
Website of the weekly news magazine (in German - partly in English).
Daily business and financial publication (English summaries).
Internet distributed News site (in German)
Retrieves articles of the latest news (in German).
Since more than 50ty years sophisticated News. (German, partly English)
Weekly Magazine (German).
German TV News. (German).
Die Zeit
Weekly News and background information (in German).

Initiative Nachrichtenaufklärung (INA)
Founded in May 1997, in order to publish once in the year a rank list of the most neglected topics and news in the media of the Federal Republic of Germany.

German Newspapers online
More links to German newspapers online.

Bookmark/share this page


Arts & Culture

Deutsche Kultur International
Information on German cultural exchange and international cultural relations.
Important exhibition of contemporary planetary art, Kassel.
Alexander von Humboldt
In search of knowledge far beyond the horizons of his time.
Goethe-Institut / Inter Nationes
Institution for cultural, social and political communication between Germany and foreign countries in the media area.
MASALA Welt-Beat Festival
Summer in the City of Hannover, World Beat Festival, traditional and modern world music (site in German).
Monopol - Magazin für Kunst und Leben

Official Website of The House of Hohenzollern.

__German Literature (very small selection)
Bertolt Brecht
The International Brecht Society Homepage, dedicated to the works and thought of Brecht.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Wikipedia entry about J.W. Goethe, one of the key figures of German literature.
The Grimm Brothers
Well known for their Children's and Household Tales (Grimms' Fairy Tales, compiled by D. L. Ashliman)
Fairy Tales by the Grimm Brothers
Web edition of tales from the Grimm Brothers' Kinder- und Hausmärchen (in German and English)
Hermann Hesse
The Steppenwolf's page (in English and German).
Thomas Mann (Buddenbrookhaus)
Maybe you will miss Felix Krull at Buddenbrookhaus somehow; (in German).
Site about the storyteller by the Karl May Foundation (in German).
Perry Rhodan
The world's greatest space adventure series, in print since 1961.

Die Deutsche Bibliothek
The national library and national bibliographic information centre.
Schiller-Nationalmuseum / Deutsches Literaturarchiv
Schiller National Museum / German Literature Archive, Marbach. Collection and research of the newer German literature.

New books in German
The web site presents regular reviews of new titles of contemporary German literature, particularly recommended for translation into English.

__German Cyberspace Culture

great site
Platform for the right of digital freedom (in German)
An independent information and communication platform in the field of Internet and politics (German)
Perspective Daily
First solution-oriented and advertising-free online medium from Germany (in German).
Space Night
Space in TV.
web culture Telepolis
German Internet Culture.
great site Timeticker
Int. Timezones, the exact time for every place on the world by Martin Zwernemann

The Bauhaus, founded in Weimar 1919 by Walter Gropius, until today one of the most famous and most avant-garde art and design schools.
Bauhaus-Archiv Museum für Gestaltung
The bauhaus-archive museum of design.
Bauhaus Dessau Foundation
Preserves and conveys the historic heritage of the Bauhaus.

Deutsches Museum
Museum of natural science and technology.
cultural reference Kunst- und Ausstellungshalle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland - Bonn
The Art and Exhibition Hall of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Museum Ludwig - Cologne
The collection comprises the most important stages and positions in the development of 20th century and contemporary art.
Naturmuseum Senckenberg
Natural History Museum, Frankfurt.
Pinakothek der Moderne
One of the world's largest museums of modern art, based in Munich.
Staatliche Museen zu Berlin - Preussischer Kulturbesitz
Various Collections and exhibitions.

German Museums
A Linklist of German Museums (German).
Museen und Ausstellungen
Guide to Museums & Exhibitions of the German-speaking world (in German).

Bayreuther Festspiele
Götterdämmerung, Meistersinger, Lohengrin, Rheingold, Siegfried, etc.
Herbert Grönemeyer
Mensch - contemporary German music.
More or less, the greatest world music event.
Contemporary German music.
Bode Museum Berlin
Bode Museum Berlin
Photo ©

Business & Economy

The German economy is the fifth largest economy in the world in PPP terms and Europe's largest. Germany is a leading exporter of machinery, vehicles, chemicals, and household equipment and benefits from a highly skilled labor force. Like its Western European neighbors, Germany faces significant demographic challenges to sustained long-term growth. Low fertility rates and declining net immigration are increasing pressure on the country's social welfare system and necessitate structural reforms.

Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Arbeit
The Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour.
Bundesagentur für Aussenwirtschaft (bfai)
The German Office for Foreign Trade offers a wide range of useful information about business opportunities.

Deutsche Börse AG
German Stock Exchange.
Deutsche Bundesbank
The Germany Central bank.

Deutsche Industrie- und Handelskammertag (DIHK)
The Association of German Chambers of Industry and Commerce (DIHK) is the central organisation for 82 German chambers.

Do's and Don'ts
The Devil is in the Details
Etiquette Tips for Business Professionals.


Deutsche Lufthansa
The German Airline.
Air Berlin
Germany's second largest airline, after Lufthansa.
Cologne-Bonn based low fare airline, offers flights all over Europe.
Hapag-Lloyd Express
Low cost airline offers flights to destinations in France, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom; owned by
One of the world's largest travel and tourism business.
Thomas Cook Airlines (Condor)
German based airline offers 65 destinations worldwide.

List of international airports in Germany:
Bremen Airport
Dresden Airport
Düsseldorf International Airport
Erfurt Airport
Frankfurt Airport
Hamburg Airport
Hanover International Airport
Köln Bonn Airport
Leipzig/Halle Airport
München Franz Josef Strauß
Münster Osnabrück International Airport
Nuremberg Airport (Flughafen Nürnberg)
Saarbrücken Airport
Stuttgart Airport

Deutsche Bahn AG
The former "Deutsche Bundesbahn".
Timetable and Tickets of Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn train connections and ticket order.

German Brand Names
Abeking & Rasmussen
Yacht- and Boatyard
Photographic films.
Formerly a great name in consumer electronic.
Hugo Boss
German tailor
Porzellan-Manufaktur Meissen.
Optical Systems.

A typical German Car
A typical Bavarian Car
Typical German Car
Also a very typical German Car
A very typical German Car.

Business Crime Control e.V.
Civil rights movement devoted to combating business crime (in German).
Deutsche Standards
Made in Germany - Information on German Brands.

Frankfurt am Main, Hesse, Germany
Business Metropolis Frankfurt/Main
Photo ©

Schloss Neuschwanstein with Forggensee (lake)
Schloss Neuschwanstein with Forggensee (lake) in background. Germany's most famous castle was commissioned by Ludwig II, King of Bavaria.
Image: Zeppelubil

Travel and Tour Consumer Information

Destination Germany - Travel and Tour Guides

Discover Germany: Berlin, Hamburg, Köln (Cologne), München (Munich), Oktoberfest, Black Forest, German Alps, Bodensee (Lake of Constance), Zugspitze.
Accommodation, hotels, attractions, festivals, events, tourist boards, biking, skiing, hiking, climbing, tours and much more.

German National Tourist Board
Germany - anything but typical, offers all the information for visitors of Germany.
Portal of the Federal Republic of Germany, offers a representative collection of essential references to German information on the internet.

Tatsachen über Deutschland
Facts about Germany--the Federal Foreign Office provides up-to-date information on the Federal Republic of Germany.

Germany Info
The German Embassy at Washington provides also information on the country.

The German Way
Germany for Visitors - made by a visitor.

City Guides
Berlin Tourism
The official tourism site of Berlin.
Cologne (Köln)
Official website of the City of Cologne.
Munich ( München )
Bavaria's capital city online.

Official City Sites
Stadt Berlin
Bundesstadt Bonn
Images of the Old City of Frankfurt am Main, once Europe's largest preserved medieval city
The Official Web Site of the City of Cologne
The Official Web Site of the City of Munich

Websites of German cities usually use the city name plus the .de extension, e.g.:

Tourism Guides for the German Federal States and Regions
Tourismus Baden-Württemberg
A guide to Baden-Württemberg.
Bodensee Tourism
Information for the Lake of Constance region.
Schwarzwald Tourismus
The official Black Forest Hompage, one of the famoust and popular holiday regions in Germany.

Überlingen at Bodensee, Baden Württemberg
Überlingen with Bodensee in background.
Image: kk

Bayern Tourism
The Bavarian Tourist Board, information about Bavarian tourism and tourism resorts.
German Alpine Road - Deutsche Alpenstrasse
Information on the German Alpine Road.
This world famous and biggest public festival in the world attracts around 6 million visitors every year.
Website about Germany's highest peak.

Brandenburg as a holiday destination.
Hessen Touristik Service
Tourist Guide Hesse, the Official Site (in German)
Discover the East of North Germany.
Reiseland Niedersachsen
Official tourism guide Lower-Saxony.
Nordrhein-Westfalen Tourismus
Official tourism guide of North Rhine-Westphalia.
Guide to the Rhineland-Palatinate's seven holiday regions.
Urlaub im Saarland
A tourist guide to Saarland (in German only).
Landestourismusverband Sachsen
Destination Saxony.
Reiseland Sachsen-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt tourism (in German).
Schleswig - Holstein Tourismus
Schleswig - Holstein tourism guide (in German only).

Mosel river near the town of Bremm, Rhineland-Palatinate
Mosel river near the town of Bremm, Rhineland-Palatinate. The Mosel region is famous
for quality wines, it is one of 13 German wine regions.

Image: Jiali Xu

More Guides to Germany
Neue Aula, University Tübingen,  Baden-Württemberg
Neue Aula in Tübingen. Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen is one of the oldest universities in Europe and one of Germany's most famous universities, noted in medicine, natural sciences, and the humanities.
Image: M. Weitzel

Education & Research

Deutsche Bildungsserver (DBS)
The internet guide to the German education system (in German and English).

Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam (AIP)
Cosmic Magnetic Fields, Solar- and Stellar Activity and Extragalactic Astrophysics and Cosmology.
Berlin-Brandenburgischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities.
Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie
The German Psychological Society.
DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung
The German Institute for Standardization.
Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft
The German Physical Society.
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft und Raumfahrt DLR
Germany's national space agency.

Development of innovations in key technologies.

GEO Explorer
Science magazine (in German).
Geography related Library Service by the University Library, Göttingen (SUB) and the University Library "Georgius Agricola" of Freiberg.

Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum für Informationstechnik
Fast Algorithms, Fast Computers.
The Max Planck Society for the Advancement of the Sciences.

Higher Education
RWTH - Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule
Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität
Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
Founded in 1737.
Heidelberg, founded in 1386.
TU Ilmenau
Universität zu Köln
The University of Cologne is one of the largest universities in Germany, founded in 1388.
Universität Mannheim
One of the leading research institutions in Germany.
A public research university in Munich.
Technische Universität
Research university with campuses in Munich, Garching and Freising-Weihenstephan.
C.v.O. Universität Oldenburg
Social Sciences, Arts and Humanities, Education, Economics.
Universität Passau
The history of the university begins in 1612 (in German).
Universität Tübingen
One of Germany's most famous and oldest universities, noted in medicine, natural sciences, and the humanities, founded in 1477.

More links to German Universities
Black Forest, view from the Blauen mountain towards the Belchen
Black Forest, view from the Blauen mountain near Badenweiler towards the Belchen (mountain).
Image: Dr. Bernd Gross

Environment & Nature

Links to federal organizations and NGO's with activities in key issues in environmental politics like Climate Protection, Energy Politics, Globalization, Nature Conservation and Sustainable Development.

Umweltbundesamt (UBA)
Federal Environmental Agency.

Forum Umwelt und Entwicklung
Forum on Environment & Development founded by leading German NGO's.

Aktionsgemeinschaft Solidarische Welt e.V.
Since 1957 Action for World Solidarity (ASW) supports small, self- initiated groups in India, Africa and Brazil.

Bund für Umwelt und Naturschutz Deutschland e. V.
Alliance for environment and nature conservation, the German branch of Friends of the Earth.

Deutscher Naturschutzring e.V.
Umbrella organization for German environmental organizations (in German).

Greenpeace e.V.
The German branch of Greenpeace.

WWF Deutschland
World Wide Fund for Nature, Germany.
Sanssouci palace and park, Potsdam, Brandenburg
Sanssouci palace in the eastern part of Sanssouci Park in Potsdam was the summer residence of Friedrich II (Frederick the Great), King of Prussia.
Image: kk

Heritage & History

Kölner Dom
The 750 years old cathedral of Cologne.
A play of life and death, promised in a moment of mortal threat. Passion play since 1634.
Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin - Preußischer Kulturbesitz
The official web site of the Berlin State Library - Prussian Cultural Heritage.
Scientific collection of links of the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin (in German).


60 Years Federal Republic Germany
An abstract of the history of the German Federal Republic .

Short History of Germany
Outline of Germany's History.

 Deutsches Archäologisches Institut
Research in archaeology and related fields.
Deutsches Historisches Museum
The German Historical Museum, Berlin.
Facts about Germany: History
Comprehensive information about German's history from the Middle Ages to present.
Virtual Library Geschichte
VL Geschichte presents academically valuable websites on historical topics (in German).
Haus der Geschichte
German History.
Monumenta Germaniae Historica (Dt. Institut f. Erforschung des Mittelalters)
German Research Institute for the Middle Ages (German).

__Additional Information on Germans History
History of Germany
Comprehensive information about the history of Germany, from Wikipedia.
Glienicker Brücke, the Bridge of Spies
Glienicker Brücke (Bridge of Spies) a bridge across the Havel River which formed the border between West Berlin and East Germany, the bridge was used several times for the exchange of captured spies.

Frankfurt am Main, Old City, Hesse
Frankfurt am Main, Old City, Hesse
Images: © kk

German Language

Goethe-Institut - German Language
The Goethe-Institut, a non-profit German cultural association operational worldwide, offers German courses and exams in more than 90 countries.


Duden is a dictionary of the German language, first published by Konrad Duden in 1880. It is the authority for all questions about German language and spelling.

German - English Dictionary - TU Chemnitz
A dictionary based on more than 700,000 word translations German-English.

 LEO's English - German dictionary
English <-> German dictionary online contains 370,730 entries in its database and has a discussion forum (your not alone).




Search engine for german sites (in German).
Open Directory: Germany

Sources and additional Information about Germany

Amnesty International: Germany

BBC Country Profile: Germany

GlobalEDGE: Germany

The Heritage Foundation: Germany

Human Rights Watch: Germany

OEC: Germany

Reporters Without Borders: Germany

Wikipedia: Germany

The World Factbook -- Germany
 Support UNICEF

Major German Cities:
Berlin, Bremen, Dresden, Düsseldorf, Erfurt, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Hannover, Kiel, Köln, Magdeburg,
Mainz, München, Potsdam, Saarbrücken, Schwerin, Stuttgart, Wiesbaden

Major Cities in Western Europe
Amsterdam, Berlin, Bern, Brussels, Bordeaux, Frankfurt, The Hague, Hamburg, Köln (Cologne),
Luxembourg City, Marseille, Monaco, München (Munich), Paris, Rotterdam, Strasbourg, Stuttgart,
Toulouse, Vaduz, Vienna (Wien), Zürich

Other Countries in Western Europe
Austria | Belgium | France | Liechtenstein | Luxembourg | Monaco | Netherlands | Switzerland