, Alice Springs
(1.6 million) Darwin
(3.5 million), Sydney
(4.2 million), Perth
Democratic, federal-state system recognizing the British monarch as sovereign.
9 July, 1900.
Independence (federation): 1 January 1901.
Location: Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean.
: 7.7 million km² (3 million sq. mi.); about the size of the 48 contiguous
Terrain: Varied, but generally low-lying plateaus with deserts; fertile plain in southeast.
Relatively dry, ranging from temperate in the south to tropical in the north.
: 25.7 million (2021)
GNI per capita
: $49,854 (2019 est.)
Ethnic groups: European 92%, Asian 6%, Aboriginal 2%.
Religions: Anglican 20%, Roman Catholic 26%, other Christian 21%, other non-Christian
5%, no religion 15%.
(official), Italian 12,4%, Greek 9.2 %, Cantonese 7.9 %, only 51 000 people speaking
an Australian Indigenous Language at home.
Bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, gold, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten,
mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, petroleum.
Wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits; cattle, sheep, poultry.
Mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, steel.
Exports - commodities:
coal, iron ore, gold, meat, wool, alumina, wheat, machinery, and transport equipment.
Exports partners: China
15.9%, South Korea
Imports - commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines, telecommunication equipment, and parts; crude oil and petroleum products.
China 23%, US 11.2%, Japan 7.4%, South Korea 5.5%, Thailand
Australian Dollar (AUD)
(Source: Australia Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade and others)