Indonesia Flag detail
Home Earth Continents Asia Asia Map Indonesia
All Countries

Country Profile Government Maps News Culture Business Tourism World Heritage Sites Education Environment History Native Info


Piaynemo or Raja Ampat islands, West Papua province
Wayag Piaynemo or Raja Ampat, the densely vegetated karst islands between North Maluku and West Papua, offer quite spectacular scenery and are not overcrowded.
Image: Rolandandika

Location map of Indonesia. Where in the world is Indonesia?
Location map of Indonesia

Flag of Indonesia
Flag of Indonesia

Indonesia in brief

Destination Indonesia, a Nations Online country profile of the largest archipelago in the world. The island country is located in Maritime Southeast Asia, between the Indian Ocean (to the south and west), the Timor Sea and the Arafura Sea to the south, the Bay of Bengal to the northwest, the South China Sea (Pacific Ocean) and some other marginal seas, to the north.
Indonesia maintains land borders with Malaysia (on the island of Borneo), with Papua New Guinea (on the island of New Guinea), and with Timor-Leste (East Timor) on the island of Timor.
The country also shares maritime borders with Australia, India, Palau, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.

The country consists of five major islands and about 30 smaller groups. There are a total number of 17,508 islands, of which about 6000 are inhabited. [1]

The largest islands are Sumatra, Java (with more than half of the country's population), Borneo (known as "Kalimantan" in Indonesia), Sulawesi, and New Guinea. Most of the larger islands are mountainous, with peaks ranging between 3,000 and 3,800 m.

Pura Besakih temple complex, Bali, Indonesia
Pura Besakih temple complex is the revered mother temple of the Hindu religion in Bali.
Image: Flying Pharmacist

The entire country lies in the southwestern arm of the "Ring of Fire," an extensive arc-shaped zone of prevalent volcanic activity, ocean trenches, fault lines, and plate movements that roughly parallels the coasts of the Pacific Ocean.
The islands of Indonesia are prone to earthquakes and even tsunamis. The island nation ranks third among countries with the most volcanoes, behind the US and Russia.

With an area of 1,904,569 km², Indonesia is the largest country consisting only of islands. The combined area of the archipelago is slightly smaller than Mexico or larger than five times the size of Germany.

The multi-ethnic country has a population of more than 271 million people (in 2021). It is by far the most populous island nation in the world. There are more than 1,300 recognized ethnic groups in Indonesia. The six largest ethnic groups are Javanese (40%), Sundanese (16%), Batak (4%), Sulawesi (3%), Madurese (3%) and Betawi (3%). [2]

The capital and largest city is Jakarta on the island of Java (pop. 10 million); other major cities are Bandung, Medan, Surabaya. The official language is Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia). The main religion is Islam; almost nine-tenths of the Indonesian population are Muslims, the majority are Sunnis.

What is Indonesia famous for?

Being the fourth most populous country in the world.
Islands, after all, the country consists only of islands.
Volcanoes, the country has more than 120 active volcanoes, the most famous are Mount Merapi, Mount Bromo, Krakatoa, Tambora and Mount Kerinci, at 3,805 m the highest volcano in Indonesia. Puncak Jaya, at 4,884 m, is the highest mountain in the country, located on the island of New Guinea. It is also the world's highest mountain on an island.
Earthquakes - sitting on the Ring of Fire has its drawbacks. Indonesia rivals Japan as the country with the most earthquakes.
Lake Toba is a large natural lake in North Sumatra occupying the caldera of a supervolcano; it is the largest volcanic lake in the world.
Bali - the island is known for its beauty and the richness of its culture. Borobudur - the Buddhist monument in central Java was built c. 800 CE and is a World Heritage Site. The Komodo National Park is home to the Komodo dragon, the largest representative of the monitor lizard family. The beauty of the Raja Ampat archipelago off the northwestern tip of New Guinea. The group of islands has the richest marine biodiversity in the world. Aluk To Dolo, the stone-carved burial sites of the indigenous Torajan people of South Sulawesi.
Batik (mbatik), an originally Indonesian technique for dyeing fabrics using wax to protect parts of the textile from the dye.
Gamelan, a traditional Indonesian band with a large rhythm section. Wayang Kulit, the Indonesian form of shadow puppet theater. Orangutans, the great apes, native only in parts of Borneo and Sumatra.
Nasi goreng - the rice dish is one of Indonesia's six national dishes, as is Satay or Sate, grilled meat on a stick.

Indonesia | Republic of Indonesia

Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world. It consists of five major islands and about 30 smaller groups. The islands are located at a crossroads between two oceans, the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and straddles two continents, Asia and Australia/Oceania. Its strategic location in maritime Southeast Asia has always shaped the cultural, social, political and economic life of the country, which only gained independence from the Netherlands in 1949.

Influenced for centuries by Indian culture, which brought Hinduism and Buddhism, the archipelago gradually adopted Islam between the 13th and 16th centuries.
The Dutch began colonizing Indonesia in the early 17th century; Imperial Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945.
Indonesia declared independence shortly before Japan surrendered to Allied forces. Still, it took four years of sometimes brutal fighting, interrupted negotiations and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949.

Current issues include: Poverty reduction, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, curbing corruption, reforming the criminal justice system, combating climate change, and controlling infectious diseases, especially those of global and regional significance. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in Aceh in December 2006. In Papua, Indonesia continues to face low-intensity armed resistance from the separatist Free Papua Movement.



Country Profile

Official Name:
Republik Indonesia
short form: Indonesia
int'l long form: Republic of Indonesia
int'l short form: Indonesia
formerly: Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies

ISO Country Code: id

Local Time = UTC +7h to UTC +9h
Actual Time:
Denpasar, Bali Wed-June-12  12:00
Jakarta, Java Wed-June-12  11:00

Country Calling Code: +62

Capital City: Jakarta (Special Capital City Region of Jakarta), situated on the island of Java (pop. est. 8.8 million) more



Official Sites of Indonesia

Changing the guard at Merdeka Presidential Palace in Jakarta, Indonesia
Changing of the guard ceremony at Merdeka Presidential Palace in Jakarta. The building is the residence of the President of Indonesia.
Image: Gunkarta

Political System of Indonesia

Indonesia is a presidential representative democratic republic with a multiparty system. The president is the head of state, the head of government and commander-in-chief of the armed forces.
In 2004, Indonesia held its first-ever direct presidential elections.
Executive power is exercised by the government. The executive branch of the government is headed by the president and the vice president. The cabinet ministers are appointed by the president.
The legislative branch of Indonesia consists (since 2004) of the Council of the People's Representatives (lower house) and the Council of Regional Representatives (the upper house).


Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

President of Indonesia
Official website of the President of Indonesia.

Indonesia Government
Government of the Republic of Indonesia.

The House of Representatives of the Republic of Indonesia
The Indonesian parliament.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Official website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Republic of Indonesia.

Diplomatic Missions
Permanent Mission of Indonesia to the UN
Indonesia's representation to the United Nations.
Embassy of Indonesia Canada
Indonesia's Embassy, Ottawa.
Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia in the U.S.
Washington D.C.

BPS - Badan Pusat Statistik
Statistics Indonesia.

Official Websites of Regional Governments:
Indonesia is divided into 34 provinces; five provinces have special status:

Jakarta, the Special Capital Region of Jakarta
Aceh, for the use of sharia as provincial law
The Special Region of Yogyakarta, an autonomous region of Indonesia on Java
Papua and West Papua

Pemerintahan Aceh
Aceh Province government (in Bahasa Indonesia)
Sumatra Utara
North Sumatra Province government.
Jambi Province government.
Propinsi Riau
Official Site of Riau Provincial Government.
Provinsi Sumatera Barat
West Sumatra Provincial Government (in Bahasa Indonesia).
Kepulauan Bangka Belitung
Bangka Belitung Islands province.
Provinsi Lampung
Lampung province government (in Bahasa Indonesia)
Sumatra Selatan
South Sumatra province government.
Propinsi Bengkulu
Bengkulu Provincial Government Offices (in Bahasa Indonesia)

Ijen Volcano with crater lake in the Banyuwangi Regency of East Java
Ijen Volcano with crater lake in the Banyuwangi Regency of East Java.
Image: © Uwe Aranas
Provinsi Banten
Government of Banten Province.
Resmi Provinsi DKI Jakarta
Official Portal of the Provincial Government of DKI Jakarta.
Provinsi Jawa Barat
West Java province government.
Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta province government (in Bahasa Indonesia).
Provinsi Jawa Tengah
Central Java Province (in Bahasa Indonesia).
Provinsi Jawa Timur
East Java province government (in Bahasa Indonesia).

Provinsi Bali
Bali province government site (Bahasa Indonesia).

Lesser Sunda Islands
Nusa Tenggara Barat
West Nusa Tenggara province government.
Nusa Tenggara Timur
East Nusa Tenggara province government.

Sulawesi (Celebes)
Pemerintah Provinsi Sulawesi Utara
North Sulawesi province government (Bahasa Indonesia).
Sulawesi Gorontalo province government.
Sulawesi Tengah
Central Sulawesi province government.
Sulawesi Barat
West Sulawesi province government.
Sulawesi Selatan
South Sulawesi province government.
Sulawesi Tenggara
Southeast Sulawesi province government.

Kalimantan Utara
North Kalimantan province government.
Kalimantan Timur
East Kalimantan province government (in Bahasa Indonesia).
Pemerintah Provinsi Kalimantan Barat
West Kalimantan province government (in Bahasa Indonesia).
Kalimantan Tengah
Central Kalimantan province government.
Provinsi Kalimantan Selatan
South Kalimantan province government (partly in English)

Maluku Islands
Maluku Utara
North Maluku government.
Maluku province government.

New Guinea
Papua Province - Pemerintah Provinsi Papua -
The Government of Papua Province.
West Papua - Papua Barat
The Government of West Papua Province.




Maps from Indonesia

Indonesia political Map with cities
Map of Indonesia (click map to enlarge)
Image: ©


profile Map of Indonesia
Political Map of Indonesia.
profile Administrative Regions of Indonesia
Map of Indonesia with administrative regions (provinces).

Google Earth Google Map of Indonesia
Searchable map and satellite view of Indonesia.
Google Earth Google Map of Jakarta
Searchable map and satellite view of Indonesia's capital city (formerly known as Sunda Kelapa, Jayakarta and Batavia).
Google Earth Google Map of Bandung
Searchable map and satellite view of Bandung, capital of West Java province.
Google Earth Google Map of Medan
Searchable map and satellite view of Medan, capital of North Sumatra province.
Google Earth Google Map of Surabaya
Searchable map and satellite view of Surabaya, capital of Jawa Timur (East Java).

South China Sea
Map and information about the South China Sea.
Map of Southeast Asia
Map of the Southeast Asia region.
profile Map of Asia
Reference Map of Asia.


News of Indonesia

Indonesia newspaper cover

Online News from Indonesia

Freedom of the Press in Indonesia
Radio stations are many, but the Internet has become the second-largest platform after television.
Many Indonesian journalists are self-censoring because they are threatened by laws on blasphemy and online defamation. The authorities also no longer hesitate to disconnect the Internet at times of tension. As the Jakarta-based Alliance for Independent Journalists often reports, the military also intimidates reporters and even uses violence against those who cover its abuses. Radical religious groups also threaten the media's right to inform. [3]

The official news agency of the government of Indonesia.

The Jakarta Post
The journal of Indonesia today provides current Indonesian news.
The Jakarta Globe
English-language daily printed in Jakarta.

National Newspaper in Bahasa Indonesia
Jawa Pos
Indonesian national daily newspaper based in Surabaya.
Kompas Newspaper
Daily news by an Indonesian national newspaper.
Koran Jakarta
Daily newspaper published in Jakarta.
Media Indonesia
Indonesian daily broadsheet published in Jakarta.
Indonesian national daily newspaper.
Surya online
Indonesia News.
Tempo CO
Magazine with online news from Indonesia.

List of newspapers in Indonesia
Wikipedia list of Indonesian newspapers.

Business News
Bisnis Indonesia
Business and finance news (English/Indonesian).

International News
Indonesia Post
Indonesia News by World News Network.

Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI)
The public radio network of Indonesia operates six national networks and provides online news in English and Indonesian.

Public Stations
Televisi Republik Indonesia (TVRI)
Indonesian public television network and the oldest television network in Indonesia. TVRI operates two networks (Indonesian).

Private Stations
Indonesian television network.
Rajawali Citra TV Indonesia (RCTI)
RCTI is an Indonesian television network based in West Jakarta.
Surya Citra Televisi Indonesia (SCTV)
Indonesian television network
Media Nusantara Citra
Private TV MNCTV's official website, formerly TPI.



Arts & Culture of Indonesia

The Dalang (puppeteer), Wayang Kulit puppet theater of Java, Indonesia
The Dalang (puppeteer), Wayang Kulit is inseparable from Javanese culture.
Image: Candra Firmansyah

Indonesian Arts & Culture

Indonesia's art and culture is as diverse as the number of ethnic groups on the islands of the archipelago. Hindu, Buddhist, Islamic and animist beliefs as well as traditional, Western, Indian and Chinese influences shaped Indonesia's culture.

The Search for Place, painting by I Gusti Nengah Nurata in the Galeri Nasional Indonesia
The Search for Place, painting in the Galeri Nasional Indonesia.
Artist: I Gusti Nengah Nurata

Aural Archipelago
Aural Archipelago is an online repository for the musical sights and sounds of Indonesia.

Indonesian Visual Art Archive
Non-profit art archive institution running a physical library and community space in Yogyakarta.

Museum MACAN
Indonesia's first museum of modern and contemporary Indonesian and international art.

National Museum of Indonesia
Indonesia's 'Museum Nasional' reflects Indonesian culture, it is located in central Jakarta (in Indonesian). 

Galeri Nasional Indonesia
The National Gallery of Indonesia is the national art gallery and a center for modern and contemporary art in Jakarta.

Taman Mini Indonesia Indah
Indonesian culture in a recreational park.

World Heritage Site Wayang puppet theatre
UNESCO page about Wayang Kulit, the ancient form of storytelling that originated on the Indonesian island of Java. The Wayang puppet theater is on UNESCO's Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.

Living in Indonesia
A site for Expats.

Traditional bull race in Tanah Datar, West Sumatra, Indonesia
Pacu jawi is a traditional bull race in Tanah Datar Regency of West Sumatra. The race celebrates the end of the rice harvest.
Image: Rodney Ee



Business & Economy of Indonesia

Tegalalang rice terraces in Bali, Indonesia
Tegalalang rice terraces north of Ubud, Tegalalang, Bali. Bali has an advanced system of wet rice cultivation that incorporates local religions and traditions dating back a thousand years. The Cultural Landscape of Bali Province is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Indonesia is one of the world's leading rice producers, with paddy production in 2003 of more than 50 million tonnes and a cultivated area of more than 11.5 million ha. [4]

Image: Niklas Weiss 

Economy of Indonesia
Indonesia is the largest economy in Southeast Asia and one of the emerging market economies in the world. The country is in transition from an agricultural economy based on the export of raw materials and non-food crops to an economy based on industrial production and services. Indonesia is also a major exporter of crude petroleum, natural gas, and coal (coal briquettes and lignite). In 2019, Indonesia was the world's biggest exporter of Palm Oil.

Bank Indonesia
Central Bank of the Republic of Indonesia.

Bursa Efek Indonesia
IDX is the Indonesian Stock Exchange is located in Jakarta.

Ministry of Industry
Indonesian Ministry of Industry website.

Indonesian brands

Child labour at a palm oil plantation in Indonesia
A child worker at the palm oil plantation in Indonesia. Indonesia commits to eliminate all forms of child labor by 2022. [5]
Image: ILO Asia-Pacific 

Astra International
Indonesian conglomerate and Southeast Asia's largest independent automotive group.
Bank Central Asia
PT Bank Central Asia Tbk is the largest privately-owned bank in Indonesia.
Cottonink is a web store for women's clothing.
An on-demand multi-service platform that began as a motorcycle ride-hailing call center in Indonesia.
Greenfields is the largest dairy company in Southeast Asia.
Gudang Garam
Gudang Garam is an Indonesian cigarette company best known for its kretek (clove cigarette) products.
Indomie instant noodles are produced by the Indonesian company Indofood.
SariWangi is an Indonesian tea brand now owned by Unilever.
Seratus Kapas
Linen and cotton clothing, Jakarta.
Telkomsel is the country's largest mobile operator.
Indonesian e-commerce platform.
Indonesia Business Directory. Find products from Indonesia.

Wikipedia W List of companies of Indonesia
Wikipedia's List of major Indonesian companies,


The Indonesian flag carrier.
Lion Air
Indonesian low-cost airline and the largest airline of Indonesia.

Jakarta Airport (Soekarno-Hatta)
Official website of Soekarno-Hatta International also called Cengkareng by Indonesians (IATA code: CGK).

Port of Jakarta
The Port of Tanjung Priok on Jakarta Bay in North Jakarta is the largest Indonesian seaport.

PT Kereta Api Indonesia
The Indonesian Railways Company. Kereta Api Indonesia is the latest in a long line of successive state-owned railroad companies dating from Dutch colonial days.

Indonesian Railways train leaving Yogyakarta, Indonesia
An Indonesian Railways train leaving Yogyakarta.
Image: Candra Firmansyah 



Tourism in Indonesia

, Indonesia
Traditional houses in West-Sumba with papaya tree (center) and satellite dishes.
Image: Azzahra Sekartini

Destination Indonesia - Travel and Tour Guides

Tourism in Indonesia is an important part of the Indonesian economy (between 4-6% of the GDP) and a significant source of foreign exchange earnings for the country. Indonesia ranked 29th in the global tourism industry in 2019 and ranked tenth in international tourist arrivals in the Asia-Pacific region.


Discover Indonesia:
Cities: Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan, Bandung,
Borobudur (9th-century Mahayana Buddhist temple complex), Prambanan (9th-century Hindu temple complex), Java; Pura Besakih (important Hindu temple complex), Sabangau National Park, Bali; Jayapura, Raja Ampat Islands, West Papua; Equator Monument Museum, Kalimantan (Borneo); Lake Toba (large crater lake), Alas River (rafting), Mount Leuser National Park, Sumatra
Find accommodation, attractions, festivals, events, tours and much more.

Wonderful Indonesia
The Official Website of Indonesia Tourism.

Tourism Indonesia
Comprehensive travel and tourism guide to the archipelago.

Guides to major islands in Indonesia

Tumpak Sewu waterfall with Mount Semeru in the background.
Tumpak Sewu waterfall with Mount Semeru, the highest mountain in Java, in the background. The tiered waterfall is located in East Java.
Image: Rolands Varsbergs
Bali Tourism
Official Bali Tourism Website.
Wikivoyage Logo Wikivoyage Bali
Bali travel by the free worldwide travel guide in many languages.

The official tourism site of East Java Province with all information about tourism in 29 districts and nine cities of East Java. 
Java - temples, volcanoes and bustling cities.
Wikivoyage Logo Wikivoyage Java
Java travel by the free worldwide travel guide in many languages.

Kalimantan (Borneo)
Kalimantan Tour Guide
We are a group of local tour guides all over Kalimantan.
Wikivoyage Logo Wikivoyage Kalimantan
Wikivoyage guide to Kalimantan.

Official tourism board website to South Sulawesi.
Wikivoyage Logo Wikivoyage Sulawesi
Wikivoyage guide to Sulawesi.

Wikivoyage Logo Wikivoyage Sumatra
A travel guide to Sumatra island.

Ulun Danu Beratan a Hindu Shaivite Shiva Temple in Bali, Indonesia
Ulun Danu Beratan temple complex is a major Hindu Shaivite Shiva compound on the shores of Lake Bratan in Bali.
Image: Bhasker Thodla



UNESCO World Heritage Sites

The sun rises over Borobudur Temple in Central Java, with Mount Merapi, an active volcano, in the background.
Image: Cmichel67.


UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Indonesia
There are nine UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Indonesia, five cultural and four natural sites. Additionally, 19 properties are listed in UNESCO's Tentative List (see the List of all UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Indonesia).
The following links lead to a detailed description of the respective World Heritage Site at UNESCO.

World Heritage Site Borobudur Temple Compounds
Borobudur is a 7th-century Mahayana Buddhist temple in the Kedu Valley in the Magelang Regency of Central Java. It is the largest Buddhist temple in the world. The temple was used by Buddhists as a place of worship from the time of its construction until sometime between the 10th and 15th centuries when it was abandoned. Since its rediscovery in the 19th century and its restoration in the 20th century, it has once again become a Buddhist archaeological site. The World Heritage Site consists of three monuments, the Borobudur Temple and two smaller temples, the Mendut Temple and the Pawon Temple.

World Heritage Site Prambanan Temple Compounds
Prambanan is an 8th-century Hindu temple complex about 15 km east of Yogyakarta. It is the largest temple compound in Indonesia. Prambanan consists of three temples decorated with reliefs illustrating the Ramayana epic, dedicated to the Trimurti, the triad of three deities, Brahma the creator, Vishnu the preserver and Shiva the destroyer.

World Heritage Site Ombilin Coal Mining Heritage of Sawahlunto
Sumatra and is the oldest open-pit coal mine in Southeast Asia. Coal was discovered in the area by the Dutch, and mining began in 1892 after the construction of a railroad system that delivered coal from Sawahlunto to the west coast of Sumatra.
Built for the extraction, processing and transportation of high-quality coal in an inaccessible region of Sumatra, the industrial site was developed by the government of the Dutch East Indies during the industrialization period from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century.
Coal production at Sawahlunto could supply 90 percent of the energy needs of the Dutch East Indies. The Dutch government solved the need for more and more workers, not exactly elegantly, by mobilizing forced convict labor. [6]
Today, tourists can visit the former infamous mine site, which has been transformed into a zoo, a lake and an equestrian center.

World Heritage Site Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra
The site comprises three Indonesian national parks on the island of Sumatra, Gunung Leuser National Park, Kerinci Seblat National Park and the Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park. The 2.5 million hectares tropical rainforest holds the greatest potential for the long-term conservation of Sumatra's distinctive and diverse flora and fauna, including many endangered species. The sanctuary is home to plant and mammal species found nowhere else in the archipelago.

Tana Toraja Traditional houses in South Sulawesi, Indonesia.
Traditional houses of the Torajan people in a mountainous region of South Sulawesi. Tana Toraja Traditional Settlement is on UNESCO's World Heritage Site Tentative List.
Image: Dominique Kirsner 1976


Education in Indonesia

Kampus of the Bandung Institute of Technology, Indonesia
Kampus of the Bandung Institute of Technology.
Image: ITB

Indonesia struggles to provide inclusive, high-quality education to its citizens. The country has much lower literacy levels than those of other Southeast Asian nations.
Elementary education is compulsory and is provided free of charge at public schools from grades one to nine (six years of elementary education and three years of junior secondary education). The Indonesian government plans to extend compulsory education to grade 12, but these plans have not yet been implemented due to the associated costs and other reasons. [7]

Major universities in Indonesia

Bandung Institute of Technology
ITB is a state research university located in Bandung and the first technology-oriented university in Indonesia.

Diponegoro University
UNDIP was the first university in Central Java when it was founded as a private university in 1957. Diponegoro is now a public university and is one of the leading universities in the country.

Gadjah Mada University
UGM is a public research university located in Sleman, Yogyakarta. Gadjah Mada is known as the largest and leading state university in the country.

Universitas Brawijaya
The autonomous state university in Malang (East Java) was established in 1963. UB is recognized as one of the elite campuses in Indonesia.

Universitas Indonesia
The state university of Indonesia in Depok and Jakarta is one of the oldest tertiary-level educational institutions in Indonesia.

Wikipedia W List of universities in Indonesia
Wikipedia list of Indonesian Universities.   


Environment & Nature

Mount Bromo volcano in the Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park in East Java, Indonesia
Mount Bromo is an active volcano inside the giant Tengger caldera. The 2,329 m high mountain is the centerpiece of Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park in East Java, Indonesia.
Image: sara marlowe

Environmental issues in Indonesia
Environmental problems in Indonesia are related to the country's high population density and rapid industrialization and are often a low priority due to high poverty levels and inadequate government resources.
Major environmental problems include overexploitation of marine resources; ecological issues associated with the country's rapid urbanization and economic development, such as air pollution, traffic congestion, waste disposal, and reliable water and wastewater supplies and water pollution from industrial waste and untreated sewage.
Deforestation and the destruction of peatlands by land burning make Indonesia the world's third-largest producer of greenhouse gases. Widespread habitat destruction threatens the survival of native and endemic species.

The first Indonesian national parks were established only in the 1980s. Today, the country has 54 national parks covering about 12% of Indonesia's territory. [8]

Environmental organizations in Indonesia

Burung Indonesia is an organization for the protection of birds and their habitat.

Down to Earth
Down to Earth works with partners in Indonesia and internationally to promote climate justice and sustainable livelihoods in Indonesia.

Gili Eco Trust
The Gili Eco Trust is a non-profit organization based in the Gili Islands of Indonesia, created to protect coral reefs from destructive fishing around the three Gili Islands, off the coast of Lombok (island).

Jaringan Advokasi Tambang - the Mining Advocacy Network
JATAM, the Mining Advocacy Network is a network of non-governmental organizations and community-based organizations working on issues concerning human rights, gender, the environment, indigenous people and social justice in relation to the mining, oil, and gas industries.

Young orangutan on Borneo
Young orangutan on Borneo.
Image: Joe Hunt

Orang Utan Rehabilitation Center and Tanjung Puting National Park
Site about the Rehabilitation Center at Tanjung Puting National Park.

Borneo Orangutan Survival Foundation (BOS)
BOS is dedicated to the conservation of the endangered Bornean orangutan and its habitat.

Sumatran Orangutan Conservation Program
SOCP's work is to protect the critically endangered Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii) and the Tapanuli orangutan (Pongo tapanuliensis).

Indonesian Forest Fires Crisis
Greenpeace article about burned land areas in Indonesia.

WALHI - Friends of the Earth Indonesia
WALHI is the largest and oldest non-governmental organization in Indonesia dedicated to environmental protection.

A truck transport huge logs out of the rainforest in Indonesia
There they go, the giant trees. A truck transport huge logs in Indonesia. Indonesia is one of the world's largest exporters of tropical timber products. For decades, according to the Environmental Investigation Agency, 80% of timber from Indonesia was believed to come from an illegal source.
Image: Hari Priyadi/CIFOR



Indonesia History

Prambanan temple with the Merapi volcano near Yogyakarta in Central Java
The Prambanan temple compound with the Merapi volcano in the background. The remains of the 8th century Hindu complex with more than 200 temples are located near Yogyakarta in Central Java.
The Prambanan Temple Compounds is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Image: Arabsalam

History of Indonesia

Arsip Nasional Republik Indonesia
The National Archives of Indonesia is the non-ministerial government institution of Indonesia responsible for maintaining a central archive. It holds the largest archive collection related to the Dutch East India Company.

History of Indonesia article by the Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia in Washington DC.

Wikipedia W Timeline of Indonesian history
Wikipedia timeline on the history of Indonesia.

BBC - Indonesia profile - Timeline
BBC timeline of Indonesia's recent history.

1820-1950 Indonesia and decolonisation
Article by the Rijksmuseum, the Dutch National Museum of Art and History in Amsterdam.

Wikipedia: History of Indonesia
Wikipedia article about the History of Indonesia. Part of a series on the History of Indonesia.

History of Indonesia
Encyclopædia Britannica article

Outline of Indonesia's History
Library of Congress: Indonesia from prehistory until today.


Indigenous People of Indonesia

Map of ethnic groups native to Indonesia
The map shows ethnic groups native to Indonesia. Ethnic groups of foreign origin such as Chinese, Arabs and Indians are not shown but usually inhabit urban areas.
Map: Gunawan Kartapranata

Peoples of Indonesia

Southeast Asia was under the cultural influence of the Indian subcontinent for centuries. From about 300 B.C. until about the 15th century, Hindu-Buddhist influence had spread through trade and religious, cultural, and political relations and was gradually absorbed by local politics.

Indonesia is a multi-ethnic, multi-lingual island country that was ruled by various local Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms and tribal empires before the arrival of Islam in the 15th-century and the colonization by the Dutch in the 19th century.

 Javanese dance featuring Ramayana Ballet.
A Javanese dance. The Javanese adapted many aspects of Indian culture, such as the Ramayana epic.
Image: Gunawan Kartapranata
Indigenous Indonesians are known as pribumi (literally "people of the land"), the Indonesians whose ancestors are primarily rooted in the archipelago, as distinguished from Indonesians with known (partial) foreign ancestry, such as Chinese Indonesians (Tionghoa), Arab Indonesians, and Indo-Europeans (Eurasians).

There are more than 1,300 recognized ethnic groups in Indonesia, and hundreds of languages are spoken.

In addition to the six largest ethnic groups, Javanese (40%), Sundanese (16%), Batak (4%), Sulawesi (3%), Madurese (3%), and Betawi (3%), there are Minangkabau, Buginese, Bantenese, Banjarese, Balinese, Acehnese, Dayak, and Sasak, all with a population of more than 3 million people.



Additional Information

Selected country profiles of Indonesia published by international organizations.


Country profiles

BBC Country Profile: Indonesia
Country profiles by the British public service broadcaster.

BTI Transformation Index Indonesia
Indonesia Country Report 2020 by Bertelsmann Stiftung.

The CIA World Factbook -- Indonesia
CIA World Factbook Indonesia Page.

Wikipedia: Indonesia
Wikipedia's Indonesia page in many languages.

Human rights

Amnesty International: Indonesia
Amnesty International is a non-governmental organization focused on human rights.

Freedom House: Indonesia
The U.S. government-funded non-profit organization whose goal is to promote liberal democracies worldwide.

Human Rights Watch: Indonesia
HRW conducts research and advocacy on human rights.

Reporters Without Borders: Indonesia
RSF (Reporters sans frontières) is an international NGO that defends and promotes media freedom.


Business & economy

FAO: Indonesia
UN Food and Agriculture Organization.

GlobalEDGE: Indonesia
Indonesia ranking by the Global business knowledge portal.

The Heritage Foundation: Indonesia
Index of Economic Freedom by The Heritage Foundation, an American conservative think tank.

OEC: Indonesia
The Observatory of Economic Complexity provides the latest international trade data.

World Bank: Indonesia
World Development Indicators database.



Other Countries in Southeast Asia:
Brunei | Cambodia | East Timor | Laos | Malaysia | Myanmar | Philippines | Singapore | Thailand | Vietnam