ရပ်တန့် လူသတ်မှု မြန်မာ ချက်ချင်း။

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Myanmar   (Burma)

Kyaik Hmaw Won Yele Pagoda in Kyauktan Township
The Yele Pagoda in Kyauktan Township, Yangon Region. The pagoda is located on a small island southeast of Yangon in Hmaw Wun Creek, a tributary of the Yangon River. Pagodas and stupas are the real landmarks of Myanmar.
Image: kk

Location map of Myanmar. Where in Asia is Burma - Myanmar?
Location map of Myanmar
Flag of Myanmar
Flag of Myanmar

Myanmar in brief

Destination Myanmar, a Nations Online country profile of the Southeast Asian nation also known as Burma and the Golden Land. Myanmar has a long coastline along the Bay of Bengal, the Gulf of Mottama and the Andaman Sea in the south. It borders China in the north and northeast, Laos and Thailand in the east, and Bangladesh and the Indian states of Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram in the northwest.

The country covers an area of 676,578 km², making it almost twice the size of Germany or slightly smaller than the US state of Texas.

Myanmar has a population of 55 million people (2021 est.). Largest city, former capital, and economic center of Myanmar is Yangon (Rangoon). Since 2005 Burma's new (administrative) capital is Naypyidaw, a planned city in the country's central part.
Spoken languages are Burmese (official); Kachin, Kayah, Karen, Chin, Mon, Rakhine, and Shan are major regional languages. Rohingya, the language of the Rohingya people from Rakhine State is spoken by about 1.3 million. According to the United Nations, the Rohingya are one of the most persecuted minorities in the world. In 2017 hundreds of thousands of Rohingya fled from western Myanmar into neighboring Bangladesh because of the repression and violence they face in Myanmar.

The highest elevation in Myanmar and Southeast Asia is Mount Hkakabo Razi (Khaka Borazi), at 5,881 m (19,295 ft). The mountain is located in Kachin state near the country's northern border with China, about 110 km (70 mi) north of the city of Putao.
Burma's main rivers are the Chindwin (the 'Mighty Chindwin') and the Irrawaddy (Ayeyarwady).

Myanmar | Burma | ပြည်ထောင်စု သမ္မတ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော်‌


Flag of National League for Democracy
The fighting peacock flag
Previously an independent kingdom, Burma was annexed by the British Empire into the colony of India in 1886. The occupation brought social, economic, cultural and administrative changes to the once-feudal society. The Japanese Empire, supported by the Burmese Independence Army, invaded and occupied (British) Burma during World War II and nominally declared the colony independent as the State of Burma (1942). In 1945, however, Burma returned to British control until the country's independence in 1948.

In 1962, an army coup led by Ne Win overthrew the government and established an authoritarian state. From 1962 to 2011, the country was ruled by a military junta with absolute power. The country's name was changed to Myanmar in 1989 by the ruling military government, officially recognized by the United Nations. Some national governments, such as Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States, and much of the Burmese population, do not recognize this name change since they do not recognize the military government.

Despite multiparty elections in 1990 that resulted in the main opposition party winning a decisive victory, the military junta refused to hand over power.

Key opposition leader and Nobel Peace Prize recipient Aung San Suu Kyi has been set under house arrest from 1989 to 1995 and was again placed under house detention in September 2000; her supporters were routinely harassed or jailed or killed.

In 2011, the military junta was dissolved following a general election in 2010, and a civilian government has been installed. Since April 2016, Aung San Suu Kyi, the leader of the National League for Democracy of Myanmar, is the incumbent State Counsellor and plays a vital role in the government, but her influence is relatively weak. Her international reputation was damaged after hundreds of thousands of Rohingya fled to Bangladesh as the Burmese army destroyed villages and killed members of the unwanted Rohingya Muslim minority.

On 8 November 2020, general elections were held in Myanmar, and Aung San Suu Kyi's party (NLD) won the majority. But the military-backed opposition has demanded a re-run of the election. In February 2021, Myanmar's leader Aung San Suu Kyi and other senior figures from the ruling party were detained by the military. Protests erupted on the streets of the country's major cities against Min Aung Hlaing's orchestrated military coup.



Country Profile

Official Name:
Pyidaungzu Thammada Myanma Naingngandaw
ပြည်ထောင်စု သမ္မတ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော

short form: Myanma
int'l long form: Republic of the Union of Myanmar
int'l short form: Myanmar
formerly, but still in use: Burma

ISO Country Code: mm, MMR, .mm

Country Calling Code: +95

Administrative capital is since 6 November 2005 Naypyidaw (Nay Pyi Taw) more

Official Sites of Myanmar

Parliament buildings in Myanmars new capital Naypyidaw
Parliament buildings in Myanmar's capital Naypyidaw.
Image: Trond Viken, Utenriksdepartementet

Political system of Myanmar
Since 29th March 2011, when Burma's military handed over power, the country is ruled by a nominally civilian government. But the military retains a considerable amount of control in government and parliament.
In 2008 the country adopted a new constitution, but some critics say it is "less a charter for democracy than the generals' retirement plan." [1]
In March 2016, the first democratically elected government went into session after more than fifty years of brutal military rule. But Aung San Suu Kyi, the trailblazer of the pro-democracy movement, was barred by the constitution from becoming president.
In February 2021, a coup d'état, staged by Min Aung Hlaing (a mediocre general of the Burma Army), changed the country's political landscape again, with an uncertain future.
After the military took over the government and declared a state of emergency, General Min Aung Hlaing is now head of state. He established a State Administrative Council as the executive government body with 16 members (8 civilian and 8 military), headed by him.


Note: External links will open in a new browser window.
Due to an ongoing military coup, the Internet is disrupted on a daily basis.

Myanmar President Office
The official website of Myanmar President Office.

Myanmar National Portal
The official website of the Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar.

Myanmar Ministry of Information
Official website of the Ministry of Information.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Site of the ministry with information on Myanmar and its foreign relations.

Diplomatic Missions
Permanent Mission of the Union of Myanmar to the United Nations and Other International Organizations
Geneva, Switzerland.
Myanmar Permanent Mission to the United Nations
The permanent mission of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar to the United Nations, New York.
Consulate General of Myanmar in Hong Kong
With information on Myanmar in English and Chinese.
Myanmar Embassy Singapore
The embassy provides as well information on Myanmar.
Missions of Myanmar
List of Myanmar missions in foreign countries.
Foreign Embassies Addresses in Myanmar
Address List of Foreign Embassies Addresses in Myanmar.

Central Statistical Organization Myanmar
Provider of official statistics of Myanmar.




Maps of Myanmar

Myanmar Map
Map of Myanmar (click map to enlarge, opens in a new page)
Image: ©


profile Map of Myanmar
Political Map of Myanmar showing Myanmar and the surrounding countries with international borders, the administrative capital Naypyidaw, state and division capitals, major cities, main roads, railroads and major airports.

profile Administrative Map of Myanmar
Administrative Map of Myanmar with international borders, state/division boundaries, the administrative capital Naypyidaw, state and division capitals, major cities, and more information about Myanmar's states and regions.

Google Earth Google Earth Myanmar
Searchable map and satellite view of Myanmar.
Google Earth Google Earth Yangon
Searchable map and satellite view of Yangon.
Google Earth Google Earth Mandalay
Searchable map and satellite view of Myanmar's second city, Mandalay.
Google Earth Google Earth Naypyidaw
Searchable map and satellite view of Naypyidaw, Burma's new administrative capital.
Google Earth Google Earth Shwedagon Pagoda
Searchable map/satellite view of the Golden Pagoda and other landmarks in Yangon.

Map of Southeast Asia
Map of the Southeast Asia region.
profile Map of Asia
Reference Map of Asia.



News of Myanmar

Myanmar Newspaper covers

Online News from Myanmar

The Burmanet News
Burma (Myanmar) related news in Burmese. The Burmanet News was closed in October 2016.

The Daily Eleven Newspaper.

Frontier Myanmar
News and business magazine based in Yangon.

Karen News
Myanmar and Karen people related news.

Myanmar Alin
The longest-running newspaper in circulation in Myanmar and the official mouthpiece of the government. (in Burmese)

Myanmar Times
One of the oldest privately owned English-language newspapers in Myanmar.

The Global New Light of Myanmar
An official daily newspaper from Myanmar.

Myanmar Business Today
Myanmar's first bilingual business newspaper.

Myanmar NOW
Myanmar Now is an independent news service in Burmese and English.

Narinjara News
Rakhine (Arakan) state and Myanmar-related news.

7day news
Burmese daily (in Burmese)

Popular News Journal
Burmese lifestyle weekly.

Myanmar Radio and Television
Myanmar Radio and TV (MRTV)

Myawaddy TV
Burmese military TV.

International News sources
The Guardian - Asia
UK-based The Guardian covers news from Asia.

Democratic Voice of Burma - DVB
DVB broadcasts twice a day Burma related current news and news commentaries. DVB is based in Oslo, Norway and Chiang Mai, Thailand and is run by Burmese expatriates.

The Irrawaddy
News Magazine covering Burma and Asia. The Irrawaddy is a news website of the Irrawaddy Publishing Group (IPG), founded in 1990 by Burmese exiles living in Thailand.
Specializing on Burma - related news and issues, especially India-Burma relations. Mizzima was established in 1998 in New Delhi, India, by veterans of Myanmar's 1988 pro-democracy uprising.

Radio Free Asia
RFA is a US government-funded, nonprofit international broadcaster based in Washington, D.C., that broadcasts and publishes online news, information and commentary for readers and listeners in Asia.

Reuters Myanmar
The World's Largest News Provider with news from Myanmar.


Arts & Culture of Myanmar

Buddha image in Yele Pagoda, Kyauktan, Myanmar
Elaborate Buddha statue in the Yele Pagoda in Kyauktan.
Image: kk

Arts & Culture

A Burmese shrine with horned idols and incense sticks
A Burmese shrine with horned idols and incense sticks.
Image: kk

Myanmar is a nation with a multiplicity of ethnic groups, more than130 distinct ethnic groups are recognized by the Burmese government. By far the largest group (68%) are the Bamar people who speak the (official) Burmese language (a Sino-Tibetan language).
Other main groups are Shan 9%, Kayin 7%, Rakhine 3.5%, Mon 2.0%, Kachin 1.25%, and Kayah 0.75%.
Other minorities in Burma are Chinese 2.5%, Indians 1.5% and Rohingya. [2]

Art centers: National Museum of Myanmar in Yangon; Bagan Archaeological Museum; Myanmar Gems Museum in Yangon; Mandalay Cultural Museum

Ten Myanmar Arts
Myanmar crafts.

Culture of Myanmar
Wikipedia article about Myanmar's culture.

A Brief History of Contemporary Art in Myanmar
Ellen Pearlman's article about contemporary art in Myanmar.

Do's and Don'ts in Myanmar
Do's and Don'ts in the Golden Land for those who visit Myanmar or dealing with Myanmar people should observe certain rules.

The Art of Burma
Burma Art gallery, a collection of Burmese art presented by Center for Burma Studies, Northern Illinois University.

Wikipedia W Art of Myanmar
Short Wikipedia article about traditional and contemporary art in Myanmar.

Yangon Gallery
The Yangon Gallery organizes events of all art forms, including painting, fashion, photography, music, film, documentary and literature.

Burmese Language

Encyclopædia Britannica MyanmarLanguages
Encyclopædia Britannica entry about Burmese languages.

Shwedagon pagoda in Yangon
Evening view of Shwedagon on Singuttara Hill in Yangon; it is Burma's most famous pagoda. It is believed that the pagoda contains relics of the four previous Buddhas of the present Kalpa. Shwedagon is on UNESCO's Tentative List for future World Heritage Sites.
Image: kk




Business & Economy of Myanmar

Wood transport with oxcart in Mrauk U with Khoe Thaung temple
Wood transport with oxcart in Mrauk U, Rakhine state, Koe Thaung Pagoda in the background.
Image: kk

Economy of Myanmar
Myanmar's economy is among the least developed in the region and is essentially agricultural. About 70% of the labor force is employed in agriculture, 7% in industry, and 23% in services.

Since Burma began its transition to a civilian-led government in 2011, the country has embarked on economic reforms to attract foreign investment and integrate into the global economy. The government enacted a new anti-corruption law in September 2013 and granted licenses to 13 foreign banks. In October 2016, Myanmar passed a Foreign Investment Law that consolidates investment regulations and relaxes rules on foreign ownership of companies.
The country's abundant natural resources and young workforce have since attracted foreign investment in the energy, apparel and information technology sectors.

Central Bank of Myanmar
The central bank of Myanmar has its headquarters in Naypyidaw, the country's capital.

Myanma Foreign Trade Bank
The state-owned bank is specialized in foreign banking.

Major Burmese Companies
Asia World
Asia World Group is the country's largest and most diversified conglomerate with interests in industrial development, construction, transportation, import-export and a local supermarket chain.

Capital Diamond Star Group
CDSG is a diversified business conglomerate in Myanmar with interests in agriculture, food, retail, and real estate.

HTOO Group
HTOO is a Burmese Holding Company with investments in trading, construction, aviation, hotels – resorts, agriculture, production, financial services, lifestyle and entertainment & food & beverage sectors.

Myanmar Telecommunication Network Public Company provides various telecommunication services throughout the country.

Myanmar Brewery
The brewery of Myanmar lager beer.

Myint & Associates
Service Provider in the Oil & Gas Sector of Myanmar.

Premier Coffee
Home to Premier Coffee, Happy, and Tea Master.

Air Bagan
Domestic carrier.
Asian Wings
Private airline based at Yangon International Airport.
Air Mandalay
A domestic and regional carrier for the tourism sector.
Myanmar Airways International
MAI Airways offers international flights to Singapore and Bangkok.
Myanmar National Airlines
Myanmar National Airlines (MNA) is the national airline of Myanmar and has the most extensive route network within the country.
Yangon Airways (Air Thanlwin)
Yangon Airways is now Air Thanlwin, a domestic airline in Myanmar.

Myanmar Railways
Myanmar Trains
Train times, prices and buy tickets.

On the train to Hsipaw crossing the Gokteik bridge, Myanmar
On the train to Hsipaw crossing the Gokteik bridge in Shan State.
Image: Isabell Schulz



Tourism in Myanmar

Sule road, with Sule pagoda and Yangon City Hall, Yangon, Myanmar
Yangon center, Sule road with Sule pagoda (right) and Yangon City Hall (left).
Image: kk

Destination Myanmar - Travel and Tour Guides


Myanmar is a new and emerging tourist destination in South East Asia. Known to most travelers as the Golden land, Myanmar is rich in cultures and natural attractions. There are numerous pagodas, temples, beauty spots, archaeological sites, snow-peaked mountains, deep forests with abundant flora and fauna, rivers and natural lakes, unspoiled beaches and archipelagos, 135 national races with their colourful costumes and customs, traditional arts and crafts make Myanmar the most exotic and fascinating destination in Asia. Visitors will find Myanmar a beautiful and peaceful place with the most hospitable people in the world.
'Introduction to Myanmar' by the website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Not mentioned in this 'Introduction' is the fact that many areas of the country are closed to visitors and that there is an ongoing military coup.

Discover Myanmar: Bagan, Inle Lake, Kyaikhtiyo, Mandalay, Mrauk U, Ngapali, Ngwe Saung, Yangon.

Discover Myanmar
The official website of Myanmar tourism by the Ministry of Hotels and Tourism.

Myanmar Travel Guide
Detailed Myanmar travel guide.

Myanmar Travel Information
Comprehensive Myanmar travel information by local Myanmar tourism promotion.

Myanmar Holidays
Site of a Myanmar Tour Operator.

Wikivoyage Logo Wikivoyage Myanmar
The free worldwide travel guide to Myanmar.

Faces of Myanmar
Images of Myanmar's people and places by Valeska Gehrmann.

Official website of Yangon city administration.

Landscape with pagodas near Mrauk U in Rakhine State
View from Sakura Tower, central Yangon with Sule Pagoda and Yangon River in the background.
Image: kk



UNESCO World Heritage Sites

Bagan from above, with Htilominlo Temple and Dhammayan temple, Bagan, Myanmar
Bagan from above, Htilominlo Temple to the left, in the background the largest of all the temples in Bagan, the Dhammayan.
Image: Gerd Eichmann

UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Myanmar
There are two cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Myanmar. Additionally, 15 properties are listed in UNESCO's Tentative List, an inventory of those properties which each State Party intends to consider for nomination. (see the List of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Myanmar).

World Heritage Sites are natural or man-made sites, areas or monuments that are recognized as being of outstanding international importance and therefore deserve special protection. Sites are nominated and designated by the World Heritage Convention (an organization of UNESCO).

World Heritage Site Bagan
Bagan is a sacred landscape featuring an exceptional range of Buddhist art and architecture that demonstrates centuries of the cultural tradition of the Theravada Buddhist practice of merit-making (Kammatic Buddhism). The property includes numerous temples, stupas, monasteries and places of pilgrimage, as well as archaeological remains, frescoes, and sculptures. Hundreds of places of worship are the spectacular testimony of the zenith of the Bagan civilization (11th-13th century AD) when the complex was the capital of a regional empire.

World Heritage Site Pyu Ancient Cities
The Pyu city-states were a series of city-states that existed from about the 2nd century BC to about the mid-11th century in what is now central Myanmar. The heritage site includes the remains of the walled cities of Halin, Beikthano and Sri Ksetra in the vast irrigated landscapes in the dry zone of the Irrawaddy River basin. The city-states were founded by Pyu people, the earliest inhabitants of Burma, of whom records are extant.

Sunset over Mergui (or Myeik) Archipelago, view from Myeik, Myanmar.
Sunset over Mergui (or Myeik) Archipelago, view from Myeik. The Myeik Archipelago is on UNESCO's Tentative List.
Image: kk


Education in Myanmar

The main building of Mandalay University, Myanmar
The main building of Mandalay University in the second city of Myanmar, Mandalay.
Image: Kantabon

Mandalay University
The University of Mandalay (MU) is a public liberal arts and science university located in the country's second city Mandalay.

Mandalay Technological University (MTU)
MTU is the second senior engineering university in Myanmar, located in Patheingyi Township, Mandalay.

University of Computer Studies, Yangon (UCSY)
UCSY offers both undergraduate and postgraduate degrees as well as diploma programs in computer studies.

University of Medicine 1 Yangon
Oldest medical school in Myanmar.

Yangon Technological University (YTU)
YTU was established in 1924 as the Department of Engineering under the University of Rangoon (Yangon).

University of Yangon
Oldest and most well-known university in Myanmar, located in Kamayut, Yangon.

Wikipedia W Education in Myanmar
Wikipedia article about Education in Myanmar.



Environment & Nature

Landscape with pagodas near Mrauk U in Rakhine State
Landscape near Mrauk U in Rakhine State.
Image: kk

Burmese landscapes
Myanmar is endowed with great biogeophysical diversity. There are the coastal areas along the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea in the south, the densely populated Irrawaddy Delta and the tropical evergreen forests with Malay fauna and flora. The Chin Hills-Arakanto mountain range covered by mountain forests forms a natural border with India in the West. In central Myanmar are the irrigated fields of the dry zone of the Ayeyawady River and in the far north are the snow-capped mountains with the flora and fauna of the Himalayas. The central western part is dominated by the Shan Highland. Myanmar's two major rivers are the Chindwin and the Irrawaddy River.

Gulf of Mottama: Navigating muddy waters
Article about the Gulf of Mottama where four major rivers, the Ayeyarwady, Yangon, Sittaung, and Thanlwin (Salween), deliver sediment into the Andaman Sea arm.

Hkakabo-Razi the unique biogeographic wonder of northern Myanmar
Article about the landscape in Myanmar's far north.

Myanmar Water Portal
Non-government platform related to the water system of Myanmar.

Terrestrial Ecoregions -- Tenasserim-South Thailand semi-evergreen rain forests
Information by World Wildlife Fund about the forested mountainous ecoregion on the Malay Peninsula, known as the southern portion of the Tenasserim Range, which separates Thailand and Myanmar.

Wildlife Conservation Society: Myanmar
WCS was the first international NGO to initiate long-term conservation in Myanmar.

Paddy field in Ayeyarwady region
Paddy field in the Ayeyarwady region.
Image: kk


Myanmar History

History: British tanks on Sule Pagoda Road in Yangon, 1942
1942 - British tanks on Sule Pagoda Road in Rangoon (Yangon), with Sule Pagoda and Yangon City Hall (left) in the background.
Photo: unknown

History of Myanmar
Myanma History by Myanmar Travel Information.

Myanmar History
Timeline, Rulers, Heroes, Prehistoric Caves, Pondaung man, 4 million Pagodas by

Myanmar profile - Timeline
A chronology of key events in Burma/Myanmar by the BBC.

Myanmar's Troubled History
Myanmar's Troubled History: Coups, Military Rule, and Ethnic Conflict. An article by the Council on Foreign Relations, a United States nonprofit think tank, founded in 1921.

Online Burma/Myanmar Library
Comprehensive background information on Burma/Myanmar with classified and annotated links to thousands of full text documents about Burma. OBL is by far the largest single source of organized Burma/Myanmar material on the Internet.

Wikipedia W Wikipedia: History of Myanmar
Wikipedia articles about Myanmar's history.

Encyclopædia Britannica Myanmar History
Encyclopædia Britannica article about the history of Myanmar. 


Indigenous People of Myanmar

M'uun women with face tattoos in the Chin Hills area of Chin state
M'uun women with face tattoos in the Chin Hills area of Chin state.
Image: kk

Myanmar is a nation with a multiplicity of ethnic groups; more than130 distinct ethnic groups are recognized by the Burmese government. There are eight "major national ethnic races": Bamar, Chin, Kachin, Kayin, Kayah, Mon, Arakanese, and Shan.
By far the largest group (68%) are the Bamar people who speak the Burmese language (a Sino-Tibetan language).
Other main groups are Shan 9%, Kayin 7%, Rakhine 3.5%, Mon 2.0%, Kachin 1.25%, and Kayah 0.75%.
Other minorities in Burma are Chinese 2.5% and 1.5% Indians. [2]

Wikipedia W Bamar people
The Bamar people live mainly in the Irrawaddy River basin and along the coastal regions; they speak the Burmese language, which is the official language of Myanmar at the national level.

Wikipedia W Chin people
Wikipedia article about the Chin people, who comprise 53 different ethnic groups.

About the Karen People
The Karens, pronounced (Ka-ran), are indigenous people to the southeast Asian countries of Thailand and Myanmar. The Karen people comprise about 20 different ethnic groups.
Behind Karen lines
Article about the Karens' bitter war against the Burmese junta.

The Mon People
The Mon Information Home Page about the endangered Mon People, the earliest known inhabitants of lower Burma.

The Shanland
The official home of Shan Democratic Union and Shan Human Rights.

Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation (UNPO)
UNPO information on the Shan, Karenni, and Mon people of Burma.

Free Burma Rangers
FBR is a multi-ethnic humanitarian service movement.


Additional Information

Selected country profiles of Myanmar published by international organizations.


Amnesty International: Myanmar
Amnesty International is a non-governmental organization focused on human rights.

BBC Country Profile: Myanmar
Country profiles by the British public service broadcaster.

BTI Transformation Index Myanmar
Myanmar Country Report 2020 by Bertelsmann Stiftung.

FAO: Myanmar
UN Food and Agriculture Organization.

Freedom House: Myanmar
The U.S. government-funded non-profit organization whose goal is to promote liberal democracies worldwide.

GlobalEDGE: Burma
Burma ranking by the Global business knowledge portal.

The Heritage Foundation: Burma
Index of Economic Freedom by The Heritage Foundation, an American conservative think tank.

Human Rights Watch: Myanmar
HRW conducts research and advocacy on human rights.

MIMU provides maps, data and information on the various administrative areas of Myanmar.

OEC: Burma
The Observatory of Economic Complexity provides the latest international trade data.

Reporters Without Borders: Myanmar
RSF (Reporters sans frontières) is an international NGO that defends and promotes media freedom.

UNICEF Myanmar
The site provides an overview of its work to save children's lives, protect their health, provide them with educational opportunities and safe drinking water, and protect them from harm.

Wikipedia: Myanmar
Wikipedia's Myanmar page in many languages.

World Bank Data: Myanmar
World Development Indicators database.

The CIA World Factbook -- Burma
The CIA World Factbook intelligence on Myanmar.


Other Countries in Southeast Asia
Brunei | Cambodia | East Timor | Indonesia | Laos | Malaysia | Philippines | Singapore | Thailand | Vietnam

Major Cities in Southeast Asia
Bandar Seri Begawan, Bandung, Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Jakarta, Johor Bahru, Kuala Lumpur, Mandalay, Manila, Medan, Naypyidaw, Phnom Penh, Singapore, Surabaya, Vientiane, Yangon