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Old Orhei (Orheiul Vechi)
The Church of St. Mary Assumption in the monastery complex of Old Orhei (Orheiul Vechi), an archaeological site and a historical settlement in the cultural landscape of the Răut Valley. The site of a cave monastery, Orthodox churches and medieval excavations is located about 50 km northeast of Chișinău and is one of the most famous sights in the country. The Orheiul Vechi Archaeological Landscape is on UNESCO's Tentative List of World Heritage Sites.
Image: Calin Stan - Adobe Stock

Location map of Moldova. Where in Europe is Moldova?
Location map of Moldova

Flag of Moldova
Flag of Moldova

Moldova in brief

Destination Moldova, a Nations Online country profile of the small landlocked Eastern European country sandwiched between Ukraine and Romania in a region known as Bessarabia.

The country covers an area of 33,850 km², making it somewhat larger than Belgium, or slightly larger than the US state of Maryland.
The landscape of Moldova is a predominantly hilly plateau crossed by several river valleys and streams. Most of its territory is used for agriculture (75%).

Since the 1980s, the integrity of Moldovan territory has been threatened by Russian military presence in the approximately 200 km long narrow strip of land between the Dniester River and the Moldova-Ukraine border, known as Transnistria (PMR). Pridnestrovie, or the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR), is an unrecognized breakaway state controlled by pro-Russian separatists (see a map of Moldova). The Dniester region is internationally recognized as part of the Republic of Moldova.

Moldova has a population of 2.6 million people (in 2022). By far the largest city and capital of the country is Chisinau (Kishinev).
The language of Moldova is Moldovan (same as Romanian); other regional spoken languages are Ukrainian, Russian and Gagauz (a Turkic language).

Republic of Moldova | Republica Moldova


Formerly ruled by Romania, Moldova became part of the Soviet Union at the close of World War II.
Although independent from the USSR since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Nistru (Dnister) River supporting the Slavic majority population, mostly Ukrainians and Russians, who have proclaimed a "Transnistria" republic.

One of the poorest nations in Europe, Moldova became the first former Soviet state to elect a Communist as its president (Vladimir Voronin) in 2001.

In 2014 the Moldovan Government signed an Association Agreement with the EU, advancing the Coalition's policy priority of EU integration.
On 23 June 2022, the Republic of Moldova became a de facto EU candidate country. [European Parliament]


Country Profile

Official Name:

Republica Moldova
short form: Moldova
int'l long form: Republic of Moldova

ISO Country Code: md, MDA

Local Time = UTC +2h
Actual Time: Wed-July-24  19:38

Country Calling Code: +373

Capital City: Chisinau

Other Cities: Tiraspol, Balti, Tighina, Rîbnita more  


Official Sites of Moldova

Triumphal Arch and Government House in Chisinau
The Triumphal Arch of the Republic of Moldova with the Government House behind it in the country's capital Chișinău.
Image: Dorin Seremet


Moldova's political system
Moldova is a parliamentary, representative, democratic republic with a multiparty system in which the prime minister presides over the government. The government exercises executive power, while legislative power lies with the parliament. The President of the Republic of Moldova is the head of state and represents the country.

Moldova has a competitive electoral environment, and the freedoms of assembly, speech, and religion are largely protected. Nonetheless, pervasive corruption in the government sector, links between major political parties and powerful economic interests, and deficiencies in the rule of law continue to hamper democratic governance. [Freedomhouse]

Official Sites of Moldova

Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

Some official websites do not work from time to time for unknown reasons.

Presidential palace of Moldova in Chisinau
Presidential Palace of the Republic of Moldova in Chisinau. Completed in 1984, the building is the official residence of the President of the Republic of Moldova.
Image: Photobank MD

Republica Moldova
Moldova's Government site.

Government of the Republic of Moldova
Official website of the Republic of Moldova.

President of the Republic of Moldova
Official website of the President (in Moldovan, Russian and English)

Parlamentul Republicii Moldova
Parliament of the Republic of Moldova.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration
Official website of the ministry with information about the Ministry, Foreign Policy, European Integration, and Consular Information.

Diplomatic Missions
Diplomatic Missions of Moldova Abroad
Address list of Moldova's Diplomatic Missions abroad.
Foreign Diplomatic Missions accredited in Moldova
Address list of Foreign Diplomatic Missions in Moldova.

National Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Moldova
Moldova in figures.

Serviciul Hidrometeorologic de Stat
State Hydrometeorological Service.



Maps of Moldova

Moldova Map
Map of Moldova (click map to enlarge)
Image: ©


Map of Moldova
Political Map of Moldova.
Google Earth Google Earth Moldova
Searchable map and satellite view of Moldova.
Google Earth Google Earth Chisinau
Searchable map and satellite view of Moldova's capital.
Map of Central and Eastern Europe
Political map of Central and Eastern Europe.
Map of Europe
Political Map of Europe.


News of Moldova

Moldovan Newsstand

News from Moldova

Television is the most popular medium in Moldova, but online media are increasingly gaining influence.
In September 2017, the European Parliament issued a draft resolution expressing concern about the progress of democracy in Moldova, highlighting the persistent issues of corruption and political pressure on the media. [Internews]

According to Reporters Without Borders (RSF), Moldova's media are divided into pro-Russian and pro-Western camps. Oligarchs and political leaders strongly influence their editorial stances. [RSF]

Press Agencies

Moldovan News Agency.

National News Agency.

Media Azi - Independent Journalism Center
Focus on the development of news media in Moldova.

Moldovan newspapers online

Independent news outlet.

Moldovan newspaper from Rezina.
News website for young people (in Romanian and Russian).
Moldovan news TV channel company Jurnal Trust Media, headquartered in Chisinau.
Moldovan magazine (in Romanian).

Moldova Suverană
Daily news (in Romanian).

Moldovan news in Romanian, English and Russian.

Breaking news from Moldova.

Moldovan news outlet.

Ziarul de Gardă
Moldovan news paper.

Transnistria news
Transnistria government daily news.

Private TV station.
State-run TV station.

International news sources
Euronews - Moldova
Moldova-related news by Euronews.

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty - Moldova
Moldova related news by Radio Free Europe.


Arts & Culture of Moldova

Capitoline Wolf Monument in Chișinău in front of the National History Museum.
A replica of the Roman Capitoline Wolf in Chișinău in front of the National History Museum of the Republic of Moldova.
Image: Gikü

Arts & Culture

The culture of the Republic of Moldova is characterized primarily by an agricultural tradition, a Latin-Romanian past, the Soviet occupation, and the Christian Orthodox religion.

Moldovan Culture
Article about the culture of the Republic of Moldova by the country's official website.

Ministry of Culture Moldova
The Official website of the Ministry of Culture Moldova.

Technology of the past shows the National Museum of History in Chișinău
Snowed in technology of the past in the garden of the National Museum of History in Chișinău.
Image: Nikita Chetyrin
National Museum of History of Moldova
Moldova's national museum of archaeology and history in Chisinau. The museum is one of the most important cultural institutions in the country.

National Museum of Ethnology and Natural History
Moldova's museum of ethnology and natural history.

National Art Museum
Moldova's only fine arts museum is located in Chisinau.

Andrei Mudrea Gallery
Art gallery with works of Moldavian painter Andrei Mudrea.

[ksa:k] Centrul pentru Arta Contemporana
The not-so-contemporary Center for Contemporary Art in Chisinau offers information about art and artists from Moldova.

Organ Hall from Chisinau
The Organ Hall in Chișinău used to house a state bank of the USSR until it was transformed into a concert hall and a performing arts theater.
Image: Photobank MD
Bălți National Theatre
One of the national theaters of Moldova.

Mihai Eminescu National Theater
Since 1994 the National Theater in Chisinau.

Teatrul National de Opera si Balet "Maria Bieșu"
Moldova's National Opera and Ballet Theatre "Maria Bieșu" in Chişinău is among the leading opera and ballet theaters in Eastern Europe.

Cronograf Festival
An international documentary film festival in Chisinau.

Events and Festivals
A guide to events and festivals in Moldova.

Church of Archangel Michael in Balti, Moldova
Onion domes of the Church of Archangel Michael in Balti city.
Image: Photobank MD



Business & Economy of Moldova

MallDova shopping center in Chisinau
MallDova shopping center in Chisinau with festive Christmas decorations. MallDova was the first large-scale retail and entertainment center in Moldova.
Image: andrez1

Economy of Moldova

Despite a solid economic performance over the past two decades, Moldova still remains among the poorest countries in Europe. Russia's military invasion of Ukraine exacerbated the country's economic situation. Moldova is likely to be among the countries most affected by the conflict because of its physical proximity to the war and its inherent vulnerabilities as a small, landlocked economy with close linkages to Ukraine and Russia. [Worldbank]

Banca Nationala a Moldovei (BNM)
National Bank of Moldova.

Bursa de Valori a Moldovei
The Moldova Stock Exchange.

Camera de Comert si Industrie
Chamber of Commerce and Industry Moldova.
Business portal of Moldova.

Yellow pages of Moldova
Yellow pages.

Major Companies in Moldova

Banks/Financial Services
BCR Chișinău
BCR Chișinău is a subsidiary of Banca Comercială Română (BCR), the biggest financial institution in Romania.

Mobiasbanca is a bank in Moldova with headquarters in Chișinău. The bank is now owned by OTP Bank Group, the largest commercial bank in Hungary.

Ascom Group
Ascom Group is the largest oil company in the Republic of Moldova, established in 1994. The company has commercial operations in Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Sudan.

Service station network.

Moldova's state-run power company.

Moldovan natural gas supplier.

Main producer and supplier of electricity and heat in Chisinau.

Tiraspoltransgas-Pridnestrovie is the largest gas supplier in Transnistria, based in Tiraspol. The majority of shares in Tiraspoltransgas is likely to be controlled by Russia's Gazprom (in Russian).

Moldova Steel Works
Moldavian Metallurgical Plant is a steel-producing company in Rîbnița, Transnistria.

Retail and Distribution
Fidesco Group
Fidesco is a chain of supermarkets in the Republic of Moldova. Founded in 1992, it is the first supermarket chain in Moldova and has 100% private capital. In May 2020, the Fidesco network included 33 stores in Chisinau, Balti, Ialoveni, Orhei, Calarasi, Causeni, Comrat, Ceadir-Lunga, Tvardița and Anenii Noi.

Franzeluța S.A. is the largest bakery in the Republic of Moldova.

Online gift store.

Le Bridge
Company with diverse interests from transportation to duty-free to ice cream and tobacco.

Moldovan DIY markets.
Moldovan wine portal.

Moldtelecom is the national telecommunications operator in the areas of Internet, television, mobile telephony and mobile Internet services.


Chisinau International Airport Terminal
Air Moldova at Chișinău International Airport. The country's largest and most important airport serves the Moldovan capital Chișinău. The airport is located about 11 km south of downtown.
Image: Air Moldova


Air Moldova International
Air Moldova is the national airline of the Republic of Moldova, headquartered in Chișinău and based at Chișinău Airport.

FlyOne is a Moldovan airline based in Chisinau with a hub at Chisinau Airport.

Chisinau International Airport
Chisinau Airport (IATA code: KIV) is the international airport in the Moldovan capital Chișinău.

Port of Giurgiulești
The International Freeport Giurgiuleşti is a free port at the 460-meter-long Danube access point of the Republic of Moldova.

Moldova State Railway
Calea Ferată din Moldova is the Moldovan railroad company.  

Main railway station in Chisinau
Entrance to the main station of Chisinau. The railway station was originally built in 1871 when Bessarabia was part of Imperial Russia. It had to be reconstructed after World War Two.
Image: Rfmonline



Tourism in Moldova

Moldova landscape in autumn
Aerial view of an autumn landscape in Moldova. Moldova's territory is a rolling plain with a gradual slope in the south towards the Black Sea. The highest elevation in the country is a hill named Bălănești with an altitude of 430 m.
Image: Vlad Gregurco

Destination Moldova - Travel and Tour Guides


Discover Moldova: Bâc River, Butesti Gorges, Chisinau, Codru Reservation, Duruito area, The Hundred Knolls, Padurea Domneasca (Princely Forest), Old Orhei Historical and Archaeological landscape, Tipova cave monastery complex, Saharna Monastery, Soroca Fortress, Wineries.
Find accommodation, hotels, attractions, tours, and much more.
The Travel Guide to Moldova, the official site of the National Tourism Agency.

More about upcountry Moldova by the rural tourism association.
Project on and about Moldova.

Front view of the Mimi Castle in Bulboaca
Front view of the Mimi Castle, a renovated hotel and restaurant complex, winery, museum and art gallery. The complex of buildings of a winery was built at the end of the 19th century as the first chateau of Bessarabia and is located in Bulboaca, Anenii Noi County, Moldova.
Image: Helgie12

Wikivoyage Logo Wikivoyage: Moldova
The free worldwide travel guide in many languages about traveling in Moldova.

Saharna Monastery
The Saint Trinity Monastery in Saharna, is the biggest center for religious pilgrimages in Moldova.

The Moldovan travel company provides useful information about the country's tourist attractions.

Hi Moldova
Moldovan inbound tour operator.

Travel Moldova
Moldova tour operator.

The official website of Moldova's capital Chișinău.

Balti is the second-largest city in Moldova.

The third-largest city in the country is Moldova.

Fortress of Bender, Transnistria
Tighina Fortress and Alexander Nevsky Church. The fort is a former fortification on the right bank of the Dniester River in Transnistria in the town of Bender. The site is now used as a museum and a city park.
Image: Ivo Kruusamägi



What is Moldova known for?

Soroca Fort, Soroca Moldova
Soroca Fortress, a historic fortress complex in northeastern Moldova on the Moldavian-Ukrainian border, was built in the late 15th century to defend a ford across the Dniester River.
Image: Photobank MD

Least visited country in Europe
Moldova is one of the least visited countries in Europe; according to the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), only 174,000 foreigners visited the country in 2019 and just 28.000 in 2020. [UNWTO]

Moldova's capital offers blocks of Soviet architecture, neoclassical onion dome-topped Orthodox churches, a triumphal arch honoring the victory over the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century, underground wine tasting, a famous central market, "Piaţa Centrală" and a museum of Ethnography and Natural History.

Collection of rarities of the Cricova winery
Vladimir Putin's collection of rarities at a Moldovan winery.
Image: Veni

Moldova has a well-established wine industry. Most famous and largest wineries are Cricova, KaraGani, Et Cetera and Mileștii Mici.

With a production of around 2 million hectolitres of wine (as of 2018), Moldova is the 11th largest European wine-producing country.

Churches and Monasteries
Famous cave monasteries are the Tipova Cave Monastery, a medieval monastery with richly decorated oratories built into the rocks above the Dniester River and the Old Orhei Cave Monastery, an archaeological and historical complex in the cultural landscape of the Răut Valley.

Orthodox Christian complex Curchi Monastery
Probably the most beautiful monastery in Moldova is Curchi Monastery, about an hour's drive north of Chisinau, an Orthodox Christian complex with two churches and a landscaped park, presumably built in the 18th century.
Image: Alexandra Brovco



UNESCO World Heritage Sites

The Rudi Geodetic Point, Moldova
The monument to the geodesic point on the Struve Geodetic Arc in Rudi, a village in the Soroca District of Moldova.
Image: Criss90kf

UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Moldova
Moldova is home to one UNESCO World Heritage Site. Additionally, two properties are listed in UNESCO's Tentative List (see UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites in Moldova)

World Heritage Site Struve Geodetic Arc
The Struve Geodetic Arc is one of the most remarkable attempts in human history to explore and determine the shape and size of the Earth. The Geodetic Arc is a chain of triangulation points stretching through 10 countries and over 2,820 km (1,750 mi), from Norway to the Black Sea. It was the first accurate measurement of a long meridian segment (a straight line connecting the two poles of the Earth).

The chain was established by the German-born Russian scientist Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve in the years 1816 to 1855. At that time, the chain ran through only three countries: Norway, Sweden and the Russian Empire. The first point of the arc is located at the Tartu Observatory in Estonia, where Struve conducted much of his research.

This research helped to establish the exact size and shape of the planet and marked an important step in the development of earth sciences and topographic mapping.
It is also an exceptional example of collaboration between scientists from different countries and cooperation between monarchs for a scientific cause.

The original arc consisted of 258 main triangles with 265 main station points. The inscribed property includes 34 of Struve's original station points, with different markings, i.e., a drilled hole in the rock, iron cross, cairns, or built obelisks, one of which is located in Moldova.


Education in Moldova

The Moldovan Academy of Sciences
The Moldovan Academy of Sciences is a scientific institution in the Moldovan capital Chișinău. It is the country's leading institution of basic research for natural and social sciences.
Image: Photobank MD

Ministry of Education and Research
The official website of the Ministry of Education Moldova.

Major universities in Moldova

Academy of Sciences of Moldova
Official website of the academy.

Moldova State University
The official website of the State University was founded in 1946.

Alecu Russo State University of Bălți
Alecu Russo State University Bălți is a university located in the Moldovan city of Bălți.

Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu State University
Public university in Cahul, Moldova.

TUM - Technical University of Moldova
The only higher technical educational institution in Moldova was founded in 1964.

Comrat State University
The State University of Comrat is a university in the Gagauz regional capital Comrat. It is located in the city center (Strada Galațana 17) and is the successor of the former Gagauz National University. The university is a member of the network of Balkan universities.



Environment & Nature

Pădurea Domnească nature reserve
A bison in the scientific nature reserve "Pădurea Domnească," a protected area in the northwest of the Republic of Moldova. It is the largest nature reserve in the country. Its purpose is to protect the natural features of forests and floodplain meadows along the Prut River. In the reserve live bison donated by Poland.
Image: Denis Polovnicov

Government institutions
Ministry of Environment
Official website of Moldova's Ministry of Environment.

BIOTICA Ecological Society
Society for Scientists and Citizens for Environmental Solutions.

Non-profit organizations
A non-governmental and non-profit public organization is one of the oldest public organizations in the Republic of Moldova.

National Environmental Center
National Environmental Center The National Environmental Center.

National parks in Moldova
Orhei National Park
Facebook page of Orhei National Park (Parcul Național "Orhei"), a wildlife sanctuary and the first and only nature park in the Republic of Moldova.



Moldova History

Măzărachi Hill Chisinau
At the foot of Măzărachi Hill in Chisinau. Located on the hill is the country's oldest church, Măzărache Church (Church of the Nativity of the Mother of God).
Image from the 19th century

History of Moldova
The history of the Bessarabia region is often referred to as the history of the Republic of Moldova since it is disputed whether the Moldovans are a separate people and thus have their national history or are part of the Romanian ethnic group and the history of Moldova is therefore only a regional history.

History of Moldova
Wikipedia article on Moldova's history.

Moldova Timeline
Timeline of Moldova's history compiled by the BBC.

Moldova’s Transnistrian conflict
Conflict in the Eastern part of the Republic of Moldova, an account of the 'frozen conflict' by ADST (US Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training).



Additional Information

Selected country profiles of Moldova published by international organizations.


Amnesty International: Moldova
Amnesty International is a non-governmental organization focused on human rights.

BBC Country Profile: Moldova
Country profiles by the British public service broadcaster.

BTI Transformation Index Moldova
Moldova Country Report 2020 by Bertelsmann Stiftung.

FAO: Moldova
Moldova-related information by UN Food and Agriculture Organization.

Freedom House: Moldova
The U.S. government-funded non-profit organization whose goal is to promote liberal democracies worldwide.

GlobalEDGE: Moldova
Moldova ranking by the Global business knowledge portal.

The Heritage Foundation: Moldova
Index of Economic Freedom by The Heritage Foundation, an American conservative think tank.

Human Rights Watch: Moldova
HRW conducts research and advocacy on human rights.

OEC: Moldova
The "Observatory of Economic Complexity" OEC provides the latest international trade data.

Reporters Without Borders: Moldova
RSF (Reporters sans frontières) is an international NGO that defends and promotes media freedom.

Wikipedia: Moldova
Wikipedia's Moldova page in many languages.

The World Factbook -- Moldova
A detailed country profile of Moldova in the CIA World Factbook.



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