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Wilanów Palace, Warsaw
Wilanów Palace near Warsaw. The late 17th century Baroque palace was was built for King of Poland Jan III Sobieski, most famous for his victory over the Turks at the 1683 Battle of Vienna.
Image: kk nationsonline.org
Flag of Poland
Flag of Poland
Location map of Poland. Where in Europe is Poland?
Location map of Poland
A virtual guide to Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, a country in central Europe with a coastline on the Baltic Sea in north.

Poland is bordered by Germany in west, the Czech Republic in south west, Slovakia in south, Ukraine in south east, Belarus in east and Lithuania and Russia in north east. The country shares maritime borders with Denmark and Sweden.

Poland covers an area of 312,685 km², making it slightly larger than Italy or slightly smaller than the US state of New Mexico.

Poland has a population of 38.5 million (in 2015); official language is Polish. Largest city and capital is Warsaw.


Republic of Poland | Rzeczpospolita Polska

Country Profile

Poland gained its independence in 1918 only to be overrun by Germany and the Soviet Union in World War II. It became a Soviet satellite state following the war, but one that was comparatively tolerant and progressive. Labor turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union "Solidarity" (Solidarność) that over time became a political force and by 1990 had swept parliamentary elections and the presidency.

A "shock therapy" program during the early 1990s enabled the country to transform its economy into one of the most robust in Central Europe, boosting hopes for acceptance to the EU. Poland became a full member of the EU on 1 May 2004.


Official Name:
Rzeczpospolita Polska
short form: Polska
int'l long form: Republic of Poland
int'l short form: Poland

ISO Country Code: pl, POL

Time Zone: Central European Time (CET)
Local Time = UTC +1h (in summer +2h)
Actual Time: Fri-Aug-23  12:13

Country Calling Code: +48

Capital City: Warsaw (Warszawa; pop. 1.7 million)

Other Cities: Lodz (776 000), Krakow (758 000), Wroclaw (637 000), Poznan (573 000), Gdansk (460 000).

Type: Republic.
Constitution: approved by national referendum on 25 May 1997.

Location: Central Europe, east of Germany.
Area: 312,685 km² (120,727 sq. mi.)
Terrain: Flat plain, except mountains along southern border.

Climate: Temperate with both maritime and continental elements.

Nationality: Noun--Pole(s). Adjective--Polish.
Population: 38.5 million (2015)
Ethnic groups: Polish 98%, German, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Lithuanian.
Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Eastern Orthodox, Uniate, Protestant, Judaism.
Languages: Polish.
Literacy: 99%.

Natural resources: Coal, copper, sulfur, natural gas, silver, lead, salt.

Agriculture products: Grains, hogs, dairy, potatoes, horticulture, sugar beets, oilseed.

Industries: Machine building, iron and steel, coal mining, chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles.

Exports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment 37.8%, intermediate manufactured goods 23.7%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 17.1%, food and live animals 7.6%.

Exports partners: Germany 27.1%, UK 6.8%, Czech Republic 6.6%, France 5.5%, Italy 4.8%, Netherlands 4.4% (2015)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment 38%, intermediate manufactured goods 21%, chemicals 15%, minerals, fuels, lubricants, and related materials 9%.

Imports partners: Germany 27.6%, China 7.5%, Russia 7.2%, Netherlands 5.9%, Italy 5.2%, France 4.1% (2015)

Currency: Zloty (PLN)

Presidential Palace - Warsaw, Poland
Presidential Palace in Warsaw with the equestrian statue of Prince Józef Poniatowski, the palace is the official seat of the Polish President.
Image: kk nationsonline.org

Political system
Poland is a semi-presidential parliamentary republic with a representative democracy and a bicameral parliament which consists of a 460-member lower house (Sejm) and a 100-member Senate, together they form the National Assembly (Polish: Zgromadzenie Narodowe).
Head of state is the President, he has the power to dissolve parliament in special cases. Head of government is the Prime Minister, who is the leader of the cabinet (Council of Ministers). Poland's legislative power is vested in the parliament.

Official Sites of Poland

Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

The official information portal of the Republic of Poland.

President of the Republic of Poland
Poland's President.

Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland
Chancellery of the Prime Minister.

Poland's Parliament
The lower chamber of the Parliament.
The upper chamber of the Parliament.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Poland.

Poland.pl is the official information portal of the Republic of Poland.

Diplomatic Missions
Polish Missions Abroad
Address list of Polish Missions Abroad.
Foreign Embassies in Poland
Address list of Foreign Embassies in Poland.

Polska Statystyka Publiczna
The Central Statistical Office of Poland.

Instytut Meteorologii i Gospodarki Wodnej (IMGW)
Institute of Meteorology and Water Management.


profile Map of Poland
Political Map of Poland.
profile Administrative Map of Poland Regions
Map showing the administrative divisions of Poland.
Google Earth Google Earth Poland (Polska)
Searchable map/satellite view of Poland.
Google Earth Google Earth Warsaw (Warszawa)
Searchable map/satellite view of Poland's capital city.

Map of Central and Eastern Europe
Political map of Central and Eastern Europe.
Map of the Baltic Sea Area
Political map of the Baltic Sea region.
Map of Europe
Political Map of Europe.


Poland News

Gazeta Wyborcza
National and international news (in Polish)
Warsaw Business Journal
Business and finance.
The Warsaw Voice
Polish and Central European Review.
National and international news (in Polish).

Poland portal site provides news in English.

Polska Agencja Prasowa
Polish Press Agency.

TVP.PL - Telewizja Polska S.A.
Polish television (in Polish)

Bookmark/share this page

Arts & Culture

Portal website about Polish culture.

Frédéric Chopin (1810-1849)
Comprehensive Chopin website, created under the supervision of the Fryderyk Chopin Society, offers a great deal of information about the Poland born composer.

Krzysztof Kieslowski
Wikipedia page about the Polish Filmmaker.

Konrad Korzeniowski - Joseph Conrad
A chronology of Joseph Conrad's life and works.

Joseph Conrad
More information about Joseph Conrad, a Polish-born English novelist, by the Joseph Conrad Society (UK).
Conrad is regarded as one of the greatest novelists.

Poland portal site (in Polish)

Poznan National Museum
The museum is a national institution of culture and one of the largest museums in Poland. It comprise a collection of Polish and European art (Italian, Spanish, Dutch and German).

National Museum Warsaw
The museum is a national institution of culture, and one of the largest museums in Poland. It comprise a rich collection of ancient art (Egyptian, Greek, Roman), an extensive gallery of Polish painting since the 16th century and a collection of foreign painting (Italian, French, Dutch, German and Russian).

Palace Izrael Poznanski in Łódź, Poland
Palace Izrael Poznanski in Lodz
© MFA Poland

Altarpiece of Veit Stoss in St. Mary's Basilica, Kraków
Altarpiece of Veit Stoss in St. Mary's Basilica, Kraków
Image: kk nationsonline.org  

Warsaw Old Town Market Square
Warsaw Old Town Market Square
Image: kk nationsonline.org

Business & Economy

Poland's economy was the only one in the EU to avoid a recession through the 2008-09 economic downturn. While the Polish economy has performed well over the past five years, growth slowed in 2013 and 2014, in part due to the ongoing economic difficulties in the euro zone. But Poland's economic performance could improve if the country addresses some of the remaining deficiencies in its road and rail infrastructure, business environment, rigid labor code, commercial court system, government red tape, and burdensome tax system.

Narodowy Bank Polski
National Bank of Poland
Warsaw Stock Exchange
Official website of the Warsaw Stock Exchange.

Polish Airlines.

Warsaw Frederic Chopin Airport
Poland's busiest airport.

Polskie Koleje Państwowe SA
PKP Polish Railroad (Polish)
PKP Intercity
PKP Polish Intercity (Polish)
The rail travel guide takes you through the basics of taking a train trip in Poland.
Pieskowa Skala castle near Krakow, Poland
Renaissance castle Pieskowa Skala near Krakow, built in the first half of the 14th century by King Casimir III the Great.
Image: nationsonline.org

Travel and Tour Consumer Information

Destination Poland - Travel and Tour Guides

Discover Poland: accommodation, hotels, attractions, festivals, events, tourist boards, biking, hiking, climbing, cruising, diving, tours and much more.

Polish Tourist Organization
Website of the countrywide system of Internet tourist information and Poland's promotion, presented and managed by the Polish Tourist Organization.

Informative Poland portal site of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Official site of Poland's capital city.
The city of Gdansk the Polish maritime capital.
The city of Krakow is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
Poznan is one of the richest cities in historical monuments in Poland.
Wroclaw (Breslau)
Official website of the multicultural municipality, the former capital of Silesia.



University of Gdansk
Largest institute of higher education in the Pomeranian region.
Uniwersytet Lodzki
University of Lodz
Uniwersytet Wroclawski
University of Wroclaw, largest city in the West of Poland.
Uniwersytet Warszawski
Warsaw University, founded in 1816 is the biggest and most respected university in Poland.

Environment & Nature

Ministry of the Environment
Website of the ministry.
National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management
Official website of the fund.

Poland's National Parks
A guide to Poland's National Parks.

Polish Society for the Protection of Birds
Website of the society (in Polish)

Polish Society of Wildlife Friends "pro Natura"
Information about the activities of the society (in Polish).


Tatra Mountains
Tatra Mountains
© MFA Poland


State Archives Poland
Poland's National Archives.

Polish History
The online project of the Polish History Museum in Warsaw provides information about Poland's history.
The History of Poland
Poland's history from the origins to Post War Poland.

Site about the Independent Self-governing Trade Union "Solidarity" originally led by Lech Wałęsa, which has changed Poland.

Polish History Index
Index of sites related to Polish art and culture history.

Museum of Mazovian Countryside
Museum of Mazovian Countryside
Image: MOs810


Polish World
Index - Internet Guide to Poland and Polonia.

Sources and additional Information on Poland

Amnesty International: Poland

BBC Country Profile: Poland

EU member countries: Poland

FAO: Poland

GlobalEDGE: Poland

The Heritage Foundation: Poland

Human Rights Watch: Poland

OEC: Poland

Poland : a country study

Reporters Without Borders: Poland

Wikipedia: Poland

The World Factbook -- Poland
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