One World
Nations Online

Estonia flag detail
Home Earth Continents Europe Estonia
Rõuge Suurjärv lake, Võru County, Estonia
Rõuge Suurjärv lake in Võru County, Estonia.
Image: Vaido Otsar

___ Estonia

Flag of Estonia
Flag of Estonia
Location map of Estonia. Where in the Europe is Estonia?
Location map of Estonia
Destination Estonia, a virtual guide to the Baltic country on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland, an arm of the Baltic Sea. The Eastern European country is borded by Latvia and Russia, and shares maritime borders with Finland and Sweden.

The former Soviet republic became independent in 1991. With an area of 45,227 km² the country is slightly larger than Denmark or slightly smaller than the U.S. states of New Hampshire and Vermont combined.

Estonia has a population of 1.3 million people (in 2015). Capital and largest city is Tallinn, spoken languages are Estonian (a Finnic language; official), Russian and some Swedish and Finish.


Republic of Estonia | Eesti Vabariik

Country Profile

Eastern Europe country bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia.
As a result of centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Russian rule, the idea of an independent Estonian state had already been raised in the late 19th century and came true in 1918 when Estonia attained independence from the Russian Empire. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940, it regained its freedom in 1991, with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994, Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties with Western Europe. Since April 2004 Estonia is a member of NATO and member of the European Union since May 2004.

related countries: Finland, Lithuania,


Official Name:
Eesti Vabariik
short form: Eesti
int'l long form: Republic of Estonia
int'l short form: Estonia
former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic.

ISO Country Code: ee, EST

Time Zone: Eastern European Time (EET)
Local Time = UTC +2h
Actual Time: Wed-Apr-24  06:19
DST from March - October (UTC+3)

Country Calling Code: +372

Capital City: Tallinn (pop. 398 500)

Other Cities:
Tartu (101 190); Narva (67 752); Kohtla-Jarve (46 765); Parnu (44 781); Viljandi (20 509)

Type: Parliamentary Democracy.
Constitution: On 28 June 1992 Estonians ratified a constitution based on the 1938 model, offering legal continuity to the Republic of Estonia prior to Soviet occupation.

Location: Eastern Europe, bordering Gulf of Finland and the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia.
Area: 45,227 km² (17,462 sq. mi.)
Terrain: Estonia is a green land, forests cover around half of the country. Flat, average elevation 50m. Steep limestone banks and 1 521 islands mark the coastline.
Land use: 9.5% arable land, 47,4% forest and woodland, 22% swamps and bogs, 21.5% other. Coastal waters are somewhat polluted.

Climate: Temperate, with four seasons of near-equal length.

Nationality: Estonian(s).
Population: 1.3 million (2015)
GNI per capita PPP: $ 16 461 (year)
Ethnic groups: Estonians 65%, Russians 28%, Ukrainians 2.5%, Belarusians 1.4%, Finns 0.9%, other 2.2%.
Religions: Lutheran, the Estonian Apostolic Orthodox, subordinated to Constantinople, the Estonian Orthodox, subordinated to the Moscow Patriarchate, Baptist.
Languages: Estonian (eesti keel), Russian, Ukrainian, Finnish.
Literacy: 99%.

Natural resources: Oil shale, phosphorite, limestone, blue clay.

Agriculture products: Potatoes, vegetables; livestock and dairy products; fish.

Industries: Engineering, electronics, wood and wood products, textile; information technology, telecommunications.

Currency: Euro

Exports - commodities: machinery and electrical equipment 34%, food products and beverages 9%, mineral fuels 9%, wood and wood products 10%, metals 7%, furniture 9%, vehicles and parts 6%, chemicals 5% (2015 est.)

Exports - partners: Sweden 18.8%, Finland 16%, Latvia 10.4%, Russia 6.7%, Lithuania 5.9%, Germany 5.2%, Norway 4.1% (2015)

Imports - commodities: machinery and electrical equipment 28 %, mineral fuels 11%, food and food products 10%, vehicles 9%, chemical products 8%, metals 8% (2015 est.)

Imports - partners: Finland 14.5%, Germany 11%, Lithuania 9%, Sweden 8.5%, Latvia 8.3%, Poland 7.4%, Russia 6.1%, Netherlands 5.5%, China 4.8% (2015)

Estonia in Figures
Key statistical data of Estonia.


The Parliament of Estonia resides in Toompea Castle in the central part of Tallinn, the Baroque style wing of the ancient stronghold was built in 1767-1773.
Image: Kaupo Kalda

Political System
The political system of Estonia is that of a Parliamentary Democracy. Chief of state is the president, head of government is the prime minister.
The legislation body is the unicameral parliament of Estonia, the Riigikogu. The parliament appoints the Prime Minister (nominated by the president), the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (proposed by the president), and it elects the President. Estonia is a since 1 May 2004 a member state of the European Union (EU).

Official Sites of Estonia

Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

Eesti Vabariigi Presidendi Kantselei
Office of the Precidency of Estonia.

The Parliament of Estonia.
The official gateway to Estonia.

Estonian State Web Center
Information on the Estonian State.

Esti Välisministeerium
Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Diplomatic Missions
Embassy of Estonia
The Estonian Embassy in London.
Estonia's Representations around the world
Address List of Estonia's Diplomatic Missions Abroad.
Foreign Representations accredited to Estonia
Address List of Foreign Missions accredited to Estonia.

Statistical Office of Estonia.

Estonia in Figures
Key statistical data of Estonia.

Estonia Maps
Map of Estonia
Political Map of Estonia.
Google Earth Google Earth Estonia
Searchable map and satellite view of Estonia.
Google Earth Google Earth Tallinn
Searchable map and satellite view of Tallinn.

Map of the Baltic Sea Area
Political map of the Baltic Sea region.
Map of the Baltic States
Political map of the Baltic States.
Map of Europe
Political Map of Europe.



Eesti Ekspress
Estonian News (in Estonian).
Eesti Päevaleht
Baltic and Estonian News (in Estonian).
SL Öhtuleht
Baltic and Estonian News (in Estonian).

News agency
Baltic News Service (BNS)
The Baltic News Service, covering Baltic and Estonian news. (for subscribers only)

Eesti Televisioon
ERR News - Estonian Public Broadcasting News in English

Bookmark/share this page


Arts & Culture
A guide to Estonian cultural events.
Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum
The Estonian Literary Museum, the central archive of Estonian literature and folklore.
Eesti Rahva Muuseum
The Estonian National Museum - Estonian heritage and culture, founded in 1909.
Estonian contemporary visual arts portal (partly in English).

Tallinn, Estonia
Tallinn - Estonia's Capital City
Image: Robin Pollard

Business & Economy

Eesti Pank - Bank of Estonia
The Central Bank of the Republic of Estonia.
Baltic Stock Exchanges
Common index and blue chip list of the exchanges of Tallinn (Estonia), Riga (Latvia), and Lithuania.
HEX Tallinn
The Tallinn Stock Exchange.

Invest in Estonia
Estonian Investment Agency's website created for foreign investors looking for investment opportunities in Estonia.
Estonian Chamber of Commerce and Industry
The Estonian Chamber of Commerce and Industry was re-established in 1989, today it is the largest business representation organization in the country.

Estonian Air
The Estonian national airline, with destinations in north- and central Europe and west Russia.

Tallinna Lennujaam
Estonia's principal airport with flight schedules, arrival & departure information and other travel services (in Estonian).

Port of Tallinn
Tallinn Passenger Port is the main passenger harbour in Tallinn. Regular ferry lines serve routes to Helsinki (Finland), Stockholm (Sweden) and St. Petersburg (Russia).
Tallinn Old Town, Tallin, Estonia
View of Tallinn Old Town with the Walls of Tallinn and St. Olaf's Church in background, the tallest building in the world from 1549 to 1625.
Image: Julian Nitzsche 

Travel and Tour Consumer Information

Destination Estonia - Travel and Tour Guides

Discover Estonia: Baltic Sea, Hiiumaa, Kihnu, Tallinn, Narva, Tartu, Saaremaa, Setomaa, Lahemaa National Park, Lake Peipsi.
Accommodation, hotels, attractions, festivals, events, tourist boards, biking, hiking, cruising, tours and much more.
The official tourism homepage of the Estonian Tourist Board.
Estonian Ecotourism Association
Introduction to nature and cultural tours.
Eestimaa Turismiinfo
A guide to Estonia by the Estonian Rural Tourism Association.
Eesti Panoraamgalerii
Estonia image gallery (in Estonian).

An island in the Baltic Sea.
Estonia's folk island.
Lahemaa National Park
Forests, beaches, marshes and moorland and a rich archaeological history.
Lake Peipsi
Europe's fifth largest stretch of fresh water.
Saaremaa island
The island of Saaremaa is the second largest in the Baltic Sea.
The historical and ethnical province of the Seto people in Estonia.

 Web encyclopaedia Estonica
Offers a compact and systematic overview of Estonian society, culture, history, nature, education, science, state administration and economy.

City Guides
The city of Tallinn, capital of Estonia.
The city of Narva at the border to Russia..
The university city of Tartu.
The "Summer Capital of Estonia".
The Hanseatic town of Viljandi.

Kesselaid island, Estonia
Kesselaid, an islet located between Estonia's mainland and the island of Muhu in the Suur väin (Big Strait).
Image: Ivo Kruusamägi



Eesti Humanitaarinstituut
The Estonian Institute of Humanities, an independent university established in 1988.
Eesti Instituut
The Estonian Institute provides information material on Estonia, its culture and traditions.
Eesti Rahvusraamatukogu
The National Library of Estonia - The custodian of Estonias national memory and heritage.
Eesti Teaduste Akadeemia
Estonian Academy of Sciences, develop and represent Estonian science.
Estonian Academy of Arts
The former Tallinn Applied Art School, founded in 1914.
Tallinna Tehnikaülikool
The Tallinn Technical University, founded in 1918 as an Estonian technical institution.
Tartu Ülikool
The University of Tartu, largest and oldest university in Estonia, established in 1632.
Tiigri Hype
An Estonian national program to increase Estonian school education quality utilizing modern information and communication technology.

Tartu, Estonia
University of Tartu
Kõrvemaa Nature Park in Estonia.
Tarvasjõgi river in Kõrvemaa, a Nature Park between the Harju valley and the Pandivere Upland in Estonia.
Image: Ireen Trummer

Environment & Nature

Estonian Fund for Nature (ELF)
ELF is non-governmental and independent nature protection organization, established in 1991.
Estonian Green Movement-FoE
One of the first environmental NGOs in Estonia.



Estonia History
From middle age to Estonias independence in 1991.
Estonian History
Comprehensive information on Estonia's History by the Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
History of Estonia
Wikipedia articles about the country's history.



Estonia-Wide Web
Catalogue and search index.

Sources and additional Information on Estonia

Amnesty International: Estonia

BBC Country Profile: Estonia

GlobalEDGE: Estonia

The Heritage Foundation: Estonia

Human Rights Watch: Estonia

OEC: Estonia

Reporters Without Borders: Estonia

Wikipadia: Estonia

The World Factbook -- Estonia
 Support UNICEF

Major Cities in Northern Europe
Belfast | Cardiff | Copenhagen | Dublin | Edinburgh | Glasgow | Helsinki | London | Minsk | Nuuk | Oslo
Reykjavik | Riga | Stockholm | Saint Petersburg | Tallinn | Vilnius

Other Countries and Regions of Northern Europe:
Denmark | Faroe Islands | Finland | Greenland | Iceland | Ireland
Latvia | Lithuania | Norway | Northern Ireland | Sweden | Scotland | United Kingdom | Wales