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Flag of Estonia Baltic country on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland, an arm of the Baltic Sea. The Eastern European country is borded by Latvia and Russia, and shares maritime borders with Finland and Sweden.
The former Soviet republic became independent in 1991. With an area of 45,227 km² the country is slightly larger than Denmark or slightly smaller than the U.S. states of New Hampshire and Vermont combined.
Estonia has a population of 1.3 million people (in 2015). Capital and largest city is Tallinn, spoken languages are Estonian (a Finnic language; official), Russian and some Swedish and Finish.
Republic of Estonia | Eesti Vabariik
Eastern Europe country bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia.
As a result of centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Russian rule, the idea of an independent Estonian state had already been raised in the late 19th century and came true in 1918 when Estonia attained independence from the Russian Empire. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940, it regained its freedom in 1991, with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994, Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties with Western Europe. Since April 2004 Estonia is a member of NATO and member of the European Union since May 2004.
related countries: Finland, Lithuania,
short form: Eesti
int'l long form: Republic of Estonia
int'l short form: Estonia
former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic.
ISO Country Code: ee, EST
Time Zone: Eastern European Time (EET)
Local Time = UTC +2h
Actual Time: Tue-Apr-23 08:51
DST from March - October (UTC+3)
Country Calling Code: +372
Capital City: Tallinn (pop. 398 500)
Tartu (101 190); Narva (67 752); Kohtla-Jarve (46 765); Parnu (44 781); Viljandi (20 509)
Type: Parliamentary Democracy.
Constitution: On 28 June 1992 Estonians ratified a constitution based on the 1938 model, offering legal continuity to the Republic of Estonia prior to Soviet occupation.
Location: Eastern Europe, bordering Gulf of Finland and the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia.
Area: 45,227 km² (17,462 sq. mi.)
Terrain: Estonia is a green land, forests cover around half of the country. Flat, average elevation 50m. Steep limestone banks and 1 521 islands mark the coastline.
Land use: 9.5% arable land, 47,4% forest and woodland, 22% swamps and bogs, 21.5% other. Coastal waters are somewhat polluted.
Climate: Temperate, with four seasons of near-equal length.
Population: 1.3 million (2015)
GNI per capita PPP: $ 16 461 (year)
Ethnic groups: Estonians 65%, Russians 28%, Ukrainians 2.5%, Belarusians 1.4%, Finns 0.9%, other 2.2%.
Religions: Lutheran, the Estonian Apostolic Orthodox, subordinated to Constantinople, the Estonian Orthodox, subordinated to the Moscow Patriarchate, Baptist.
Languages: Estonian (eesti keel), Russian, Ukrainian, Finnish.
Natural resources: Oil shale, phosphorite, limestone, blue clay.
Agriculture products: Potatoes, vegetables; livestock and dairy products; fish.
Industries: Engineering, electronics, wood and wood products, textile; information technology, telecommunications.
Exports - commodities: machinery and electrical equipment 34%, food products and beverages 9%, mineral fuels 9%, wood and wood products 10%, metals 7%, furniture 9%, vehicles and parts 6%, chemicals 5% (2015 est.)
Exports - partners: Sweden 18.8%, Finland 16%, Latvia 10.4%, Russia 6.7%, Lithuania 5.9%, Germany 5.2%, Norway 4.1% (2015)
Imports - commodities: machinery and electrical equipment 28 %, mineral fuels 11%, food and food products 10%, vehicles 9%, chemical products 8%, metals 8% (2015 est.)
Imports - partners: Finland 14.5%, Germany 11%, Lithuania 9%, Sweden 8.5%, Latvia 8.3%, Poland 7.4%, Russia 6.1%, Netherlands 5.5%, China 4.8% (2015)
Estonia in Figures
Key statistical data of Estonia.
Image: Kaupo Kalda
The political system of Estonia is that of a Parliamentary Democracy. Chief of state is the president, head of government is the prime minister.
The legislation body is the unicameral parliament of Estonia, the Riigikogu. The parliament appoints the Prime Minister (nominated by the president), the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (proposed by the president), and it elects the President. Estonia is a since 1 May 2004 a member state of the European Union (EU).
Official Sites of EstoniaNote: External links will open in a new browser window.
Eesti Vabariigi Presidendi Kantselei
The Precidency of Estonia, Arnold Rüütel's Office.
The Parliament of Estonia.
The official gateway to Estonia.
Estonian State Web Center
Information on the Estonian State.
Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Embassy of Estonia
The Estonian Embassy in London.
Estonia's Representations around the world
Address List of Estonia's Diplomatic Missions Abroad.
Foreign Representations accredited to Estonia
Address List of Foreign Missions accredited to Estonia.
Statistical Office of Estonia.
Estonia in Figures
Key statistical data of Estonia.
Map of Estonia
Political Map of Estonia.
Google Earth Estonia
Searchable map and satellite view of Estonia.
Google Earth Tallinn
Searchable map and satellite view of Tallinn.
Map of the Baltic Sea Area
Political map of the Baltic Sea region.
Map of the Baltic States
Political map of the Baltic States.
Map of Europe
Political Map of Europe.
Estonian News (in Estonian).
Baltic and Estonian News (in Estonian).
Baltic and Estonian News (in Estonian).
Baltic News Service (BNS)
The Baltic News Service, covering Baltic and Estonian news. (for subscribers only)
ERR News - Estonian Public Broadcasting News in English
Bookmark/share this page
Arts & Culture
A guide to Estonian cultural events.
The Estonian Literary Museum, the central archive of Estonian literature and folklore.
Eesti Rahva Muuseum
The Estonian National Museum - Estonian heritage and culture, founded in 1909.
Estonian contemporary visual arts portal (partly in English).
Image: Robin Pollard
Business & Economy
Eesti Pank - Bank of Estonia
The Central Bank of the Republic of Estonia.
Baltic Stock Exchanges
Common index and blue chip list of the exchanges of Tallinn (Estonia), Riga (Latvia), and Lithuania.
The Tallinn Stock Exchange.
Invest in Estonia
Estonian Investment Agency's website created for foreign investors looking for investment opportunities in Estonia.
Estonian Chamber of Commerce and Industry
The Estonian Chamber of Commerce and Industry was re-established in 1989, today it is the largest business representation organization in the country.
The Estonian national airline, with destinations in north- and central Europe and west Russia.
Estonia's principal airport with flight schedules, arrival & departure information and other travel services (in Estonian).
Port of Tallinn
Tallinn Passenger Port is the main passenger harbour in Tallinn. Regular ferry lines serve routes to Helsinki (Finland), Stockholm (Sweden) and St. Petersburg (Russia).
Image: Julian Nitzsche
Travel and Tour Consumer Information
Destination Estonia - Travel and Tour GuidesDiscover Estonia: Baltic Sea, Hiiumaa, Kihnu, Tallinn, Narva, Tartu, Saaremaa, Setomaa, Lahemaa National Park, Lake Peipsi.
Accommodation, hotels, attractions, festivals, events, tourist boards, biking, hiking, cruising, tours and much more.
The official tourism homepage of the Estonian Tourist Board.
Estonian Ecotourism Association
Introduction to nature and cultural tours.
A guide to Estonia by the Estonian Rural Tourism Association.
Estonia image gallery (in Estonian).
An island in the Baltic Sea.
Estonia's folk island.
Lahemaa National Park
Forests, beaches, marshes and moorland and a rich archaeological history.
Europe's fifth largest stretch of fresh water.
The island of Saaremaa is the second largest in the Baltic Sea.
The historical and ethnical province of the Seto people in Estonia.
Web encyclopaedia Estonica
Offers a compact and systematic overview of Estonian society, culture, history, nature, education, science, state administration and economy.
The city of Tallinn, capital of Estonia.
The city of Narva at the border to Russia..
The university city of Tartu.
The "Summer Capital of Estonia".
The Hanseatic town of Viljandi.
Image: Ivo Kruusamägi
The Estonian Institute of Humanities, an independent university established in 1988.
The Estonian Institute provides information material on Estonia, its culture and traditions.
The National Library of Estonia - The custodian of Estonias national memory and heritage.
Eesti Teaduste Akadeemia
Estonian Academy of Sciences, develop and represent Estonian science.
Estonian Academy of Arts
The former Tallinn Applied Art School, founded in 1914.
The Tallinn Technical University, founded in 1918 as an Estonian technical institution.
The University of Tartu, largest and oldest university in Estonia, established in 1632.
An Estonian national program to increase Estonian school education quality utilizing modern information and communication technology.
Image: Ireen Trummer
Environment & Nature
Estonian Fund for Nature (ELF)
ELF is non-governmental and independent nature protection organization, established in 1991.
Estonian Green Movement-FoE
One of the first environmental NGOs in Estonia.
From middle age to Estonias independence in 1991.
Comprehensive information on Estonia's History by the Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
History of Estonia
Wikipedia articles about the country's history.
Catalogue and search index.
Sources and additional Information on Estonia
Amnesty International: Estonia
BBC Country Profile: Estonia
The Heritage Foundation: Estonia
Human Rights Watch: Estonia
Reporters Without Borders: Estonia
The World Factbook -- Estonia
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