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The road to El Chaltén, a village within Los Glaciares National Park in Argentina's Santa Cruz province
The road to El Chaltén, a village within Los Glaciares National Park in Argentina's Santa Cruz province. Los Glaciares National Park, the largest protected area in Argentina, is embedded into the remote mountain landscape of the Patagonian Andes, aka the Austral Andes.
Image: Alex Proimos

Location map of Argentina. Where in the world is Argentina?
Location map of Argentina

Flag of Argentina
Flag of Argentina

Argentina in brief

Destination Argentina, a Nations Online country profile of "the land of the six continents," the independent state that occupies much of the southern part of South America.

Argentina is the 8th largest country in the world with an area of 2,780,400 km²; it is South America's second-largest country (after Brazil). It is more than five times the size of France or about four times the size of the U.S. state of Texas.

Argentina's landscape is dominated by the Andean mountains in the west; it is bounded by the South Atlantic Ocean in the southeast and the south. The country borders Chile to the west and the south, Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and Uruguay to the east. The country shares maritime borders with the Falkland Islands, a United Kingdom Overseas Territory.

Argentina has a population of 46 million people (2022 census); the capital and largest city is Buenos Aires. Official language is Spanish. English, Italian, German and French are spoken in the respective communities.

The term "Argentina" is derived from the Latin word "argentum," meaning silver. It refers to the early Spanish explorers' belief that the region contained vast amounts of silver.

Geographical regions of Argentina
There are seven geographical regions in Argentina: Argentine Northwest; the Chaco Region (Gran Chaco), a hot and semi-arid lowland; the mountain chain of the Sierras Pampeanas; subtropical Mesopotamia (Littoral); Cuyo in central-west; the Pampas, a vast fertile alluvial plain; and Patagonia, the sparsely populated south of Argentina. The country offers several climatic zones ranging from (north to south) tropical and subtropical zones along the Brazilian border to temperate regions in the center to a subpolar area in the extreme south.
Due to its location in the Southern Hemisphere, the Argentine summer lasts from December to February.

Argentine Republic | República Argentina


Spain colonized Argentina in the 16th century; the country declared its independence in 1816 and emerged as a democratic republic in the mid-19th century, but has since then periodically fallen under military rule.

The Argentine population consists of a mixture of different national and ethnic groups, with a predominance of descendants of Italian and Spanish immigrants.

Following independence from Spain in 1816, Argentina experienced periods of internal political conflict between conservatives and liberals and between civilian and military factions.
After World War II, a long period of Peronist authoritarian rule and interference in subsequent governments was followed by a military junta that took power in 1976.

In 1982, Argentina’s claim to the Falkland Islands led to an unsuccessful war with Britain. Democracy returned in 1983, and numerous elections since then have underscored Argentina's progress in democratic consolidation.


Country Profile

Official Name:
República Argentina
for purposes of legislation: Nación Argentina (Argentine Nation)
short form: Argentina
int'l long form: Argentine Republic

ISO Country Code: ar, ARG

Local Time = UTC -3h
Actual Time: Sat-July-20  18:13

Country Calling Code: +54

Capital City: Buenos Aires (pop. 3 million)

Other Cities:
Córdoba (pop. 1 350 000), Rosario (pop. 1 158 000), Mendoza (pop. 800 000 ), Santa Fe (pop. 360 000), Mar del Plata, La Plata, Tucuman. more

Official Sites of Argentina

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Congressional Plaza with the Palace of the Argentine National Congress in Buenos Aires.
The Congressional Plaza with the Palace of the Argentine National Congress, a monumental neoclassical building in Buenos Aires inaugurated in 1906 and seat of the Argentine National Congress. In the foreground is "The Thinker" (French: Le Penseur), a famous bronze sculpture by Auguste Rodin.
Image: Fabián Minetti

Political System of Argentina
Argentina is a federal presidential representative democratic republic with a multi-party system and an independent judicial system. The country's constitution provides for the usual three powers of government: the executive, the legislative and the judicial.

The President of Argentina serves as both the head of state and the head of government. The president is elected to a four-year term and can serve a maximum of two consecutive terms.

Legislative power is vested in both the executive branch (e.g., necessity and urgency decree by the president) and the bicameral National Congress (Spanish: Congreso de la Nación Argentina), which consists of the Senate, presided by the vice-president, and the Chamber of Deputies.

The judicial branch is composed of the Supreme Court and other federal and provincial courts.


Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

Portal del Estado - Gateway to Argentina's Federal Administration.

Presidencia de la Nación - Argentina
Office of the Presidency of Argentina.

Congreso de la Nación
Official website of the National Congress of Argentina. (in Spanish)

Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Worship
Ministry of Foreign Affairs Argentina. The ministry handles the country's foreign affairs. It maintains additionally the National Secretariat for Worship, which compiles the mandatory registrations of all churches and religious communities, other than those of the Catholic Church.

The ministry's website also provides an address list of Argentina's Diplomatic Missions worldwide and Foreign Embassies in Buenos Aires.

Diplomatic Missions
Delegation of the Permanent Mission of Argentina to the United Nations
Permanent Mission of Argentina to the United Nations.
Embassy of Argentina
Washington D.C.

Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Censos
National Institute of Statistics and Census.

Argentina in numbers
Argentina key statistical data.

Servicio Meteorológico Nacional
Argentina's Meteorological Service.



Maps of Argentina

Argentina Map detail
Map of Argentina (detail; click on the map to see the large version)
Image: ©


Map of Argentina
Political Map of Argentina.
Administrative Map of Argentina
Map of the Argentine Republic with provinces and their capitals.

Google Earth Google Earth Argentina
Searchable map and satellite view of Argentina.
Google Earth Google Earth Buenos Aires
Searchable map and satellite view of Argentina's capital city.

Map of South America
Reference maps of South America.



News of Argentina

Argentina's newspapers
Argentine Newspapers

Media in Argentina
Argentina has one of the largest media markets in South America. A diverse mix of traditional and new media platforms characterizes Argentina's media landscape. Television is the predominant medium, and large private companies operate the main networks. The country has a strong tradition of print media, with many national and regional newspapers still in circulation. However, the rise of digital media in recent years has disrupted the traditional media landscape, with many news outlets shifting their focus to online platforms and social media.

Press Agencies
The official press agency of Argentina

Spanish language newspapers online
Clarin digital
National and international news.
El Cronista
Regional News.
El Dia
Argentine daily newspaper from the city of La Plata.
El Ojo Digital
Argentine newspaper from Buenos Aires.
La Nacion
La Nacion is the country's leading conservative newspaper and is considered a newspaper of record for Argentina.
La Prensa
Argentine daily newspaper based in Buenos Aires.
La Razón
National and international news (in Spanish).
National and international news (in Spanish).

El Cronista Comercial
El Cronista Comercial is a daily business and financial newspaper published in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

English language newspapers
Buenos Aires Herald
Argentina's international newspaper.
Buenos Aires Times
The newspaper is based in Buenos Aires and reports mainly on Argentine and Latin American political, cultural, and sports events.
Argentina Reports
Columbia-based ESPACIO Media Incubator publishes Argentina Reports with Argentina-related news in English.

Channel 13
Channel 13 (El Trece) is an Argentine free-to-air television station owned by the Clarín Group.
Canal 5 Noticias
Canal 5 Noticias (C5N) is an Argentine pay television news channel.
El Nueve
El Nueve (Channel 9) is an Argentine free-to-air television station based in Buenos Aires.
Telefe (Televisión Federal) is one of Argentina's six national television networks; it is located in Buenos Aires.
TN (Todo Noticias) is an Argentine news television channel owned by Grupo Clarín.



Arts & Culture of Argentina

Argentine tango street dancers in Buenos Aires.
Tango is a serious matter in Argentina. Argentine tango street dancers in Buenos Aires.
Image: Manticora87

Arts & Culture

Academia Nacional del Tango
The National Tango Academy.

The Ministry of Culture and Arts
The Ministry of Culture is responsible for promoting and developing cultural activities and projects throughout Argentina.

Todo Tango
All about Tango Argentino.
Comprehensive directory to Argentine Arts.

Museos Argentinos
Directory of Argentine Museums (Spanish).

Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes
Located in Buenos Aires, the Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes is one of the most important art museums in Latin America. It houses a vast collection of paintings, sculptures, and other artworks, including pieces by Argentine artists such as Xul Solar, Antonio Berni, and Benito Quinquela Martín, as well as works by international masters like Rembrandt, Monet, and Van Gogh.

Museo Nacional de Historia Natural
The Museo Nacional de Historia Natural is located in Buenos Aires and is one of the most important natural history museums in South America. Its collection includes more than 3 million specimens, including fossils, plants, and animals from around the world.

Museo de Arte Latinoamericano de Buenos Aires
MALBA is a modern art museum focusing on Latin America's art. Its collection includes works by some of the most important artists from the region, such as Frida Kahlo, Diego Rivera, and Joaquín Torres García.

Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Buenos Aires
The collection of the Museum of Contemporary Art in Buenos Aires includes works by Argentine and international artists, and temporary exhibitions and special events are organized.

Carnaval de Gualeguaychú
The Carnaval de Gualeguaychú is one of the biggest and most famous carnival celebrations in Argentina. It takes place in the city of Gualeguaychú, in the province of Entre Ríos, and features colorful parades, music, and dancing.

Festival Nacional de la Vendimia
The Festival Nacional de la Vendimia is an annual celebration of the grape harvest in the province of Mendoza. It includes a variety of events, such as parades, concerts, and wine tastings, and culminates in the election of the National Harvest Queen.

Fiesta Nacional del Sol
The Fiesta Nacional del Sol is another celebration of the grape harvest and showcases the region's cultural heritage. The wine festival takes place in the province of San Juan and includes concerts, fireworks and a parade of illuminated floats.


Business & Economy of Argentina

Gaucho with herd of cattle in the grasslands of the vast pampas
Argentina's famous beef still on the pasture. Gaucho with a herd of cattle in the grasslands of the vast pampas.
Image: pxhere

Economy of Argentina

View of Buenos Aires Central Business District from the Costanera Sur Ecological Reserve.
Bodega Dante Robino winery near Mendoza. The city in the Cuyo region is located in the heart of Argentina's wine country, famous for Malbecs and other red wines. The high-altitude vineyards in Argentina are among the highest in the world.
Image: Bernard Gagnon

Argentina's economy is the third largest in Latin America and the second largest in South America after Brazil. The country is one of the world's largest agricultural producers; agriculture, forestry, and fishing account for 6.0% of the nation's GDP.

The country benefits from its rich natural resources, a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base. But, Argentina suffered during most of the 20th century from recurring economic crises, persistent fiscal and current account deficits, high inflation, mounting external debt, and capital flight. A severe depression, growing public and external indebtedness, and an unprecedented bank run culminated in 2001 in the most severe economic, social, and political crisis.

Under Cristina Fernández de Kirchner (the former president and current vice president), the economic growth of previous years began to slow sharply as government policies held back exports. In December 2016, Fernández was accused of illegally taking public funds meant for public works between May 2003 (when she was First Lady of Argentina) and December 2015. This led to her indictment in a corruption case.

After being elected into office in November 2015, then-President Mauricio Macri has taken significant steps to liberalize the Argentine economy. His administration lifted capital controls, floated the peso, negotiated debt payments with holdout bond creditors, and removed export controls on some commodities.

Financial Institutions

Building of the Headquarters of the National Bank of Argentina in Buenos Aires.
Headquarters of the National Bank of Argentina in Buenos Aires.
Image: April Killingsworth

Banco Central de la Republica Argentina
Central Bank of the Argentine Republic.

Banco de la Nación Argentina -
BNA - The Bank of the Argentine Nation, known as Banco Nación, is the country's largest bank.

Bolsa de Comercio de Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires Stock Exchange.

Cámara Argentina de Comercio
Argentine Chamber of Commerce.

Major Companies in Argentina

YPF is Argentina's largest energy company. The majority state-owned company is active in the exploration, production, refining and marketing of oil and gas products.

Banco Santander Río
One of the largest banks in Argentina, Banco Santander Río offers a wide range of financial products and services to individuals, businesses, and institutions.

Mercado Libre
Mercado Libre is Latin America's largest e-commerce platform. The company has operations in many Latin American countries and offers a wide range of products and services, including online marketplaces, payments, and shipping.

Food and Beverage
Arcor SAIC is one of Argentina's largest food companies, producing a variety of foods, candies, chocolates, cookies, candies, ice cream and baked goods sold in more than 120 countries.

Telecom Argentina
A leading telecommunications company in Argentina, Telecom Argentina provides mobile, internet, and other telecommunication services to consumers and businesses.

Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Argentina
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Argentina is a subsidiary of the Italian-American carmaker that produces and sells Fiat and Jeep vehicles in Argentina.

One of the largest agricultural companies in Argentina is based in Buenos Aires and produces agricultural commodities in Latin American countries. It operates in the Agricultural Business, Urban Properties and Investment business areas.

Boeing 737 plane of Aerolíneas Argentina Airline.
Malvinas Argentinas International Airport in Ushuaia, the capital of the Argentine part of Tierra del Fuego. A Boeing 737 of Aerolíneas Argentinas, Argentina's largest airline, is being refueled on the tarmac by a YPF airport refueling vehicle.
Image: Gastón Cuello

Aerolineas Argentinas
Argentina's flag carrier and largest airline.

LATAM Argentina
LATAM Argentina was an airline based in Buenos Aires; it ceased operations on 17 June 2020.

Ferrocarriles Argentinos
With its 37,000 km long rail network, the Argentinean railroad is one of the most extensive in the world. In the 1990s, the Argentine government began privatizing the state railroads, but the service of Argentine railroads deteriorated significantly in the following years. The privatization was ultimately reversed in 2015 with the creation of Nuevos Ferrocarriles Argentinos.


Tourism in Argentina

Iguazú Falls from the Argentine side
Iguazú Falls, one of the most spectacular waterfalls in the world, from the Argentine side. The waterfalls of the Iguazu River are on the border of the Argentine province of Misiones and the Brazilian state of Paraná.
Image: Charlesjsharp

Destination Argentina - Travel and Tour Guides


Discover Argentina. The country's diverse landscapes and rich cultural heritage make it a great destination for travelers. Some of the best destinations are:
  • Buenos Aires: Argentina's cosmopolitan capital is known for its European architecture, tango dancing and a vibrant cultural scene.
  • Iguazu Falls: The stunning natural wonder on the border of Argentina and Brazil features a series of breathtaking waterfalls.
  • Bariloche: A picturesque town in the Andes Mountains, popular for skiing, hiking, and its Swiss-style architecture.
  • El Calafate and Los Glaciares National Park: The National Park is home to the breathtaking Perito Moreno and other glaciers, offering trekking and ice-climbing opportunities.
  • Interior of the Cathedral of Salta, capital of Salta province.
    Interior of the Cathedral of Salta, the capital and largest city of the Argentine province of the same name.
    Image: Slade

    Ushuaia: The southernmost city in the world is located in Tierra del Fuego, and the nearby Tierra del Fuego National Park offers unique wildlife encounters and beautiful landscapes.
  • Mendoza: Argentina's wine country, featuring vineyards, wineries, and beautiful landscapes at the foothills of the Andes.
  • Salta: A colonial city with a rich history and beautiful architecture, surrounded by striking landscapes such as the Calchaquí Valley and the Puna Plateau.
  • Puerto Madryn and Valdés Peninsula: A hub for marine wildlife watching, including whales, sea lions, and penguins.
  • Cordoba: The historic city east of the Sierras de Córdoba mountain range offers beautiful colonial architecture and opportunities for hiking and adventure sports.
  • Esteros del Iberá: One of the largest wetlands in South America, providing a habitat for diverse wildlife and a great destination for nature lovers.

    Argentina Turismo
    Argentina's official tourism website.

    Ministry of Tourism and Sports
    The official website of the Ministry of Tourism, Argentina.

    Secretaría de Turismo
    Information on "the land of the six continents."

    A guide to Argentina by argentour.

     Sur del Sur
    El Sur del Sur (The Southernmost South), Argentina, presents an entertaining synthesis of Argentine geography, history, population, economy and culture. (English/Spanish).

    Buenos Aires
    Buenos Aires
    The Municipality of Buenos Aires.
    Turismo Buenos Aires
    Official tourism site of Buenos Aires.

    View from Cerro Campanario to Nahuel Huapi National park and Bariloche.
    In the foothills of the Andes - view from Cerro Campanario of Nahuel Huapi National Park and the city of Bariloche.
    Image: Steven dosRemedios


What is Argentina known for?

View of Buenos Aires from the Space Tower, with the towers of Puerto Madero, the city's revamped dockside area.
Skyline of Buenos Aires. View of the city of Buenos Aires from the Space Tower, with the towers of Puerto Madero, the revamped dockside area, in the background.
Image: Sebasiddi

Argentina is famous for:

Final FIFA-World Cup. Argentina won the 2022 World Cup in Lusail, Qatar
Lionel Messi in soccer heaven. Argentina won the 2022 World Cup in Lusail, Qatar, by beating France 3-3 (4-2 on penalties).
Image: David Ramos/FIFA

Soccer is deeply rooted in the Argentine culture. The country is considered a soccer nation because of its history and success in the sport, with numerous legendary players and a passionate fan base that makes the sport a national obsession.

The game has long been an integral part of Argentine culture. The country has produced world-class players and won several international titles, including three FIFA World Cups: in 1978, 1986 and 2022.

Big wine barrels of Bodega Nanni in Cafayete, Argentina.
Big-wine barrels of Bodega Nanni in Cafayete, Argentina.
Image: Rod Waddington

Buenos Aires
Argentina's capital city is a vibrant and cosmopolitan metropolis with a rich cultural heritage, from the colorful houses of La Boca to the grand boulevards of Recoleta.

Argentina, Patagonia, Mt. Fitzroy.
Silhouette of Mt. Fitzroy in the Southern Patagonian Ice Field in Patagonia.
Image: Chris Ford

This vast and remote region in the south of Argentina is home to some of the most breathtaking landscapes on earth, including the Perito Moreno Glacier and the Fitz Roy mountain range.

Argentina is one of the largest wine-producing countries in the world and is known for its rich, full-bodied Malbecs.

Located in the heart of Argentina's wine country, Mendoza is a picturesque city with tree-lined streets, beautiful plazas, and excellent restaurants and wineries.

This traditional Argentine drink, made from yerba mate leaves steeped in hot water, is a staple of daily life and social gatherings.

Argentine literature is among the most influential in the entire Spanish-speaking world, with famous writers such as Jorge Luis Borges, Julio Cortázar, Leopoldo Lugones and Ernesto Sábato.

Peronism is an authoritarian movement with political-social goals in Argentina that goes back to General and President J. D. Perón (1895 to 1974). The movement has had a significant impact on Argentine politics and society over the past century and remains a major force in Argentine politics today.

Gaucho Argentina. Gaucho on a Criollo horse
Gaucho on a Criollo horse, the native horse of the Pampas, the fertile South American low grasslands.
Image: Comparceiro

These skilled horsemen, who live and work on the pampas, are an important part of Argentine culture and history.

Argentina is famous for its high-quality beef, which is raised on vast grasslands called pampas and cooked on traditional wood-fired grills called parrillas.

A special form of meat preparation is Asado con cuero, where the beef, with the animal's skin still attached to the meat, is slowly grilled for hours on skewers stuck into the ground at an angle over wood fires.

Argentina is one of the world's top destinations for polo, the 'Sport of Kings,' with numerous clubs and tournaments held throughout the year.

Argentine Criollo
The Criollo is the native horse of the Pampas, used as a workhorse in cattle ranches. The breed is known for its hardiness, endurance and adaptability to different terrains and climates. Spanish settlers first brought horses back to America in the early 16th century, where they had become extinct. The breed dates back to a 1535 shipment of 100 purebred Andalusian stallions.

Polo game in Argentina. The Final of the Argentine Open 2014
Polo game in Argentina. The Final of the Argentine Open.
Image: Tomiflores7

Tango Shows
Visitors to Buenos Aires can experience the magic of tango firsthand at one of the city's many tango shows, which feature live music, dancing, and dinner.

The Dirty War
This period of political violence and repression in the 1970s and 1980s remains a painful and controversial part of Argentine history.

This beloved cartoon character, created by Argentine cartoonist Quino, has become an icon of Argentine culture and humor.

Perito Moreno Glacier, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina
Perito Moreno Glacier in Los Glaciares National Park, a World Heritage Site in Santa Cruz Province, Argentina.
Image: Luca Galuzzi


UNESCO World Heritage Sites

Cuevas de las Manos
Cuevas de las Manos. The Cueva de las Manos (Spanish for "cave of the hands") is a cave in southwest Argentina, located in the north of the province of Santa Cruz. It is known for its cave paintings.
Image: Guy Fawkes

UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Argentina
There are eleven UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Argentina, six cultural and five natural. Ten sites are on UNESCO's Tentative List (see the List)

UNESCO World Heritage Sites Argentina

Cultural sites
World Heritage Site Cueva de las Manos
An exceptional assemblage of cave art, executed between 13,000 and 9,500 years ago.

World Heritage Site Jesuit Block and Estancias of Córdoba 
The heart of the former Jesuit Province of Paraguay contains the core buildings of the Jesuit system: the university, the church, and the residence of the Society of Jesus.

World Heritage Site Jesuit Missions of the Guaranis
The ruins of San Ignacio Miní and Santa María la Mayor in Argentina lie at the heart of a tropical forest. They are the impressive remains of five Jesuit missions built in the 17th and 18th centuries.

World Heritage Site Qhapaq Ñan, Andean Road System
The UNESCO World Heritage Site includes the extensive communication, trade, and defense network of the Incas, including 30,000 km of roads. Constructed by the Incas over several centuries and partly based on pre-Inca infrastructure.

World Heritage Site Quebrada de Humahuaca
Quebrada de Humahuaca is a narrow and arid mountainous valley in the northwesternmost part of Argentina. It is the most important physical linkage between the high Andean lands and the extensive temperate plains with hundreds of archaeological and architectural sites.

Natural sites

World Heritage Site Iguazu National Park
The Iguazu Falls is a semi-circular waterfall with a height of about 80 meters and a diameter of 2,700 meters, located on a basalt line that straddles the border between Argentina and Brazil.

World Heritage Site Ischigualasto / Talampaya Natural Parks
These two contiguous parks contain the most complete continental fossil record known from the Triassic Period, with a wide range of mammals, dinosaurs and plant fossils.

World Heritage Site Los Glaciares National Park
Los Glaciares National Park is an area of exceptional natural beauty, with rugged, towering mountains and numerous glacial lakes, including Lake Argentino.

World Heritage Site Península Valdés
Península Valdés in Patagonia is a site of global significance for the conservation of marine mammals. It hosts an important breeding population of the endangered southern right whale (Eubalaena australis), as well as important breeding populations of southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) and southern sea lions (Otaria flavescens). The peninsula also provides important nesting and resting sites for numerous migratory shorebirds.

Rock formation in Talampaya National Park in La Rioja Province, Argentina
The Bottle and the Monk (La botella y el monje) rock formations in the Talampaya National Park in La Rioja Province of Argentina. Ischigualasto / Talampaya Natural Parks, these two contiguous parks are a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Image: gamakjachum


Education in Argentina

The Faculty of Economic Sciences of the University of Buenos Aires (UBA)
Building of the Faculty of Economic Sciences of the University of Buenos Aires (UBA).
Image: Fulviusbsas

Ministerio de Educación
The Ministry of Culture and Education.

Universidad de Buenos Aires UBA
The University of Buenos Aires was founded in 1821; it is the largest university in Argentina.

Universidad Nacional de Córdoba
The National University of Córdoba is the oldest in Argentina; it was founded in 1613 by Jesuits (Society of Jesus).

List of universities in Argentina
Wikipedia's list of public and private universities in Argentina.



Environment & Nature

View of Buenos Aires Central Business District from the Costanera Sur Ecological Reserve.
View of Buenos Aires Central Business District from the Costanera Sur Ecological Reserve.
Image: Luis Argerich

Argentina's main environmental issues
Due to the expansion of agriculture, especially soybean cultivation and livestock, Argentina is struggling with deforestation, particularly in the Gran Chaco and Yungas regions. Another significant issue is industrial pollution, especially in urban areas like Buenos Aires, causing air, water, and soil contamination.

The country is also facing the challenge of climate change, with increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, leading to severe droughts, floods, and heat waves. The ice fields stretching for hundreds of kilometers on the peaks of the Andes in Chile and Argentina are melting at one of the fastest rates in the world. [NSF]

Fundación para la defensa del ambiente (FUNAM)
Environment Defense Foundation, an NGO for a sustainable development.

Fundación Temaikèn
Fundación Temaikèn is a national organization that works to protect nature, educating, researching and conserving species and ecosystems.

Fundación Vida Silvestre Argentina
Another organization working on solving the main environmental issues of Argentina.

Greenpeace Argentina
Argentine section of Greenpeace.

''In Argentina there is environmental masquerading''
Argentine biologist Raúl Montenegro, winner of the "Alternative Nobel Prize," on his achievements in environmental protection.

Wikipedia W Environmental organisations based in Argentina
Wikipedia's short list of environmental organizations based in Argentina. 


Argentina History

Ruins of San Ignacio Miní Jesuit mission
Ruins of San Ignacio Miní, a Jesuit mission founded at the beginning of the 17th century to evangelize to the indigenous Guarani people. Today the compound is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site "Jesuit Missions of the Guaranis." The four Jesuit missions in the southern province of Misiones are an exceptional example of systematic and organized territorial occupation.
Image: Juan

History of Argentina (Short version)
Humans settled the South American continent, possibly as early as 16,500 BCE. Pre-Columbian civilizations existed until the arrival of European settlers in the late 15th century. For over three centuries, the Spanish Empire expanded across the Caribbean Islands and half of South America. The new empire was built by several waves of overseas immigration from Spain and Italy. Even before the territory became independent from Spain, Spanish emigrants settled in the region that is now Argentina. The territory of present-day Argentina was de facto separated from Spain in 1810 and officially declared independence in 1816.

WWW-VL: History: Argentina
Index of online resources on Argentina's history.

History World: History of Argentina
HistoryWorld article about the history of Argentina.

Argentina History
Argentina entry at Encyclopædia Britannica.

Wikipedia W History of Argentina
Wikipedia about the historical development in Argentina.



Indigenous People of Argentina

Expedition in the Deserts of the South against the wild Indians
"Expedition in the Deserts of the South against the wild Indians, in the year 1833, executed with the greatest skill and wisdom by his worthy chief the great Rosas." Painting of the 1833 Desert Campaign led by Juan Manuel de Rosas against the indigenous population of the southern Pampas and northern Patagonia. Rosas later claimed his army had killed 3,200 indigenous people during the campaign.
Painting: Calixto Tagliabúe (1797-1850)

Most of Argentina's indigenous peoples live in rural communities representing between 3 and 5% of the country's population.

Indigenous peoples in Argentina
Article by IWGIA, the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs.

Indigenous peoples in Argentina
Wikipedia entry about the original inhabitants of the country.



Additional Information

Selected country profiles of Argentina published by international organizations.


Amnesty International: Argentina
Amnesty International is a non-governmental organization focused on human rights.

BBC Country Profile: Argentina
Country profiles by the British public service broadcaster.

BTI Transformation Index Argentina
Country Report 2022 by Bertelsmann Stiftung.

Digital News Report 2022 - Argentina
The Reuters Institute report offers insights into digital news consumption in the country.

Freedom House: Argentina
The U.S. government-funded non-profit organization whose goal is to promote liberal democracies worldwide.

GlobalEDGE: Argentina
A global business knowledge portal of the Michigan State University (MSU).

The Heritage Foundation: Argentina
Index of Economic Freedom by The Heritage Foundation, an American conservative think tank.

Human Rights Watch: Argentina
HRW conducts research and advocacy on human rights.

OEC: Argentina
The Observatory of Economic Complexity provides the latest international trade data.

Reporters Without Borders: Argentina
RSF (Reporters sans frontières) is an international NGO that defends and promotes media freedom.

Wikipedia: Argentina
Wikipedia's Argentina page in many languages.

Worldbank Data: Argentina
World Development Indicators database.

The CIA World Factbook -- Argentina
The CIA World Factbook about Argentina. 



Other Countries of South America:
Bolivia | Chile | Colombia | Ecuador | French Guiana | Guyana | Paraguay | Peru | Suriname | Uruguay | Venezuela

Major Cities in South America:
Asunción, Belo Horizonte, Bogotá, Brasilia, Buenos Aires, Caracas, Cayenne, Georgetown, Kourou, La Paz, Lima, Manaus, Montevideo, Paramaribo, Porto Alegre, Port of Spain, Quito, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador (da Bahia, Santiago, São Paulo, Sucre

Countries of Middle and Central America:
Belize | Costa Rica | El Salvador | Guatemala | Honduras | Mexico | Nicaragua | Panama