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Cabo de la Vela, Guajira Peninsula, Colombia
Cabo de la Vela, the cape on the northwest coast of the Guajira peninsula is a popular ecotourism destination of the Caribbean Region of Colombia.
Image: Tanenhaus

Flag of Colombia
Flag of Colombia

Location map of Colombia. Where in the world is Colombia?
Location map of Colombia
Destination Colombia, a virtual guide to Colombia, a country in northwestern South America with a coastline on both, the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. Colombia is bordered by Brazil, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela, it shares maritime borders with Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, and the Cayman Islands (United Kingdom).

With an area of 1,138,914 km², the country is somewhat larger than twice the size of France or slightly less than twice the size of the U.S. state of Texas.

Colombia's population of almost 49 million people (in 2016) making it the third-most populous country in Latin America. The population is concentrated in the Andean highlands and along the Caribbean coast.

Capital and largest city is Bogotá. Official language is Spanish, there are 68 ethnic languages and dialects still in use.

Rebublic of Colombia | Republica de Colombia

Country Profile

Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Ecuador and Venezuela).

A 40-year insurgent campaign to overthrow the Colombian government escalated during the 1990s, undergirded in part by funds from the drug trade. Although the violence is deadly and large swaths of the countryside are under guerrilla influence, the movement lacks the military strength or popular support necessary to overthrow the government. While Bogota continues to try to negotiate a settlement, neighboring countries worry about the violence spilling over their borders.

Four decades of conflict have turned Colombia into one of the world's worst humanitarian hotspots, with millions caught up in the crossfire between leftist rebels, cocaine smugglers and far-right paramilitary militias.

In October 2016 a referendum rejected a landmark peace deal between Marxist Farc rebels and the government to end 52 years of conflict. The deal was four years in the making and its rejection was a shock. Many of the Colombian people were angered that Farc guerrillas were offered congressional seats and non-custodial sentences such as clearing landmines in return for ending the conflict.

Incumbent President Juan Manuel Santos has spearheaded the accord, he won the Nobel Peace Prize 2016 for his efforts.

Official Name:
Republica de Colombia
conventional long form: Rebublic of Colombia
conventional short form: Colombia
former: United States of Colombia

ISO Country Code: co
Actual Time: Fri-July-19  01:20
Local Time = UTC -5h

Country Calling Code: +57

Capital City: Bogotá formerly Santa Fe de Bogotá, (pop. about 6 million)

Other Cities:
Medellín, Cali, Barranquilla, Cartagena.

Type: Republic
Independence: 20 July 1810.

Location: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama.
Area: 1.134 million km² (440,000 sq. mi.), fourth-largest country in South America.
Terrain: Flat coastal areas, with extensive coastlines on the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea, three rugged parallel mountain chains, central highlands, and flat eastern grasslands.

Climate: Tropical on coast and eastern plains, cooler in highlands.

Nationality: Colombian(s).
Population: 49 million (2016)
GNI per capita PPP: $ 7 303 (year)
Ethnic groups: Mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1%
Religion: Roman Catholic 90%.
Language: Spanish
Literacy: 93% in urban areas, 67% in rural areas.

Natural resources: Coal, petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nickel, gold, silver, copper, platinum, emeralds.

Agriculture products: Coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; forest products; shrimp.

Industries: Textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds.

Exports partners:US 27.5%, Panama 7.2%, China 5.2%, Spain 4.4%, Ecuador 4% (2015)

Imports partners:US 28.8%, China 18.6%, Mexico 7.1%, Germany 4.2% (2015)

Currency: Colombian Peso (COP)

Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

Official Sites of Colombia

Presidencia de la Republica de Colombia.
(in Spanish)

Senado de la República
The Senate of the Colombian Republic. (in Spanish)

Online Information and Service by the Colombian Government. (mostly in Spanish)

Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores
The Ministry of External Relations. (in Spanish)

Diplomatic Missions
Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations
Misión Permanente de Colombia ante la ONU en Nueva York.
Embassy of Colombia in the U.S.
Washington D.C.
Foreign Missions in Colombia
List of foreign diplomatic missions in Colombia.
Colombian Missions Abroad
List of Colombia's diplomatic missions.

Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica - DANE
Statistics Colombia (in Spanish).


profile Map of Colombia
Political Map of Colombia.
Google Earth Google Earth Colombia
Searchable map and satellite view of Colombia.
Google Earth Google Earth Bogotá
Searchable map and satellite view of Bogotá, capital city of Colombia.

Map of Central America and the Caribbean
Reference Map of Central America and the Caribbean. 
Map of South America
Reference map of South America.

Colombia News

Colombian Newspapers (all in Spanish)
El Colombiano
Colombia News.
El Diario On-Line
National and international news.
El Espectador
The oldest newspaper in Colombia.
El Mundo
Colombia News
El Tiempo
Domestic and international news.
Noticias económicas, business news Colombia.

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Arts & Culture

Biblioteca Nacional de Colombia
The National Library of Colombia. (in Spanish)

Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Guide to the university's activities to generate new interactions between education and culture.

Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Bogotá
The modern art museum in Bogotá.

Museo de Antioquia
The Museum of Antioquia is an art museum in Medellín, it houses a large collection of works by Medellín native Fernando Botero and Pedro Nel Gómez.

Museo del Oro
Gold Museum in Bogota displays pre-Hispanic goldwork collection.

Inzá Mask, Museo del Oro, Colombia
Inzá Mask from Tierradentro, Upper Magdalena Region. Museo del Oro

Business & Economy

Banco de la República
Central Bank Colombia (in Spanish).
Bolsa de Valores de Colombia
Stock Exchange Colombia (in Spanish).

Confederacion Colombiana de Camaras de Comercio
The Colombian Federation of Chambers of Commerce.
Cámara de Comercio de Bogotá
Chamber of Commerce Bogotá (in Spanish).
Colombian Government Trade Bureau
Doing business in Colombia, Import, Export and Trade information.

Colombian Products

Federación Nacional de cafeteros
Colombian Coffee Growers Federation.
Café de Colombia
Colombian Coffee (Spanish).

¡Qué Hubo
Colombian Yellow Pages.

Economic Indicators
FocusEconomics: Colombia

The Colombian Airline.

Colombia Capital City Bogotá
Bogotá Colombia's Capital
Castillo San Felipe de Barajas in Cartagena
Castillo San Felipe de Barajas in Cartagena, the hilltop fortress was built in the 1600s with a complex tunnel system.
Image: Javiercelia1

Travel and Tour Consumer Information

Destination Colombia - Travel and Tour Guides

Destination Colombia: Bogota, Monserrate, Tayrona National Natural Park, Catedral de Sal, Zipaquirá, Rosario Islands, Castillo San Felipe de Barajas, Santa Cruz de Mompox, Malpelo Island.

Travel Colombia
Official travel guide of Colombia.

Explore Bogota
Official city guide with extensive information on Bogota and surroundings.

Colombia Info
by Latin-American Student Organization.

Colombia Information by the Universidad de los Andes (Spanish).

Visit Santander
Visitors guid to Santander Department.

Catedral de Sal
The Salt Cathedral, a tourist attraction in the salt mines of Zipaquirá.
Parque Explora Medellín
An interactive science museum and the largest freshwater aquarium in Latin America.
Rosario Islands
Guide to Rosario Islands, Cartagena.
Historic Centre of Santa Cruz de Mompox
Santa Cruz de Mompox on the banks of the River Magdalena was founded in 1539. The city played a key role in the Spanish colonization of northern South America. Its historic center is today a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
San Agustín Archaeological Park
The largest group of religious monuments and megalithic sculptures in South America is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Malpelo Fauna and Flora Sanctuary
Vast marine park and the largest no-fishing zone in the Eastern Tropical Pacific.

UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Colombia
World Heritage Site Port, Fortresses and Group of Monuments, Cartagena
The city of Cartagena de Indias boasts the most extensive and one of the most complete systems of military fortifications in South America, built in the 16th century and expanded in 17th and 18th centuries.

World Heritage Site Historic Centre of Santa Cruz de Mompox
Santa Cruz de Mompox is a municipality on the banks of the River Magdalena in northern Colombia, it is famous for its historic center. The city played a key role in the Spanish colonization of northern South America.

World Heritage Site National Archeological Park of Tierradentro
Tierradentro is a National archeological park near the municipality of Inza, in the Andes colombianos. The huge underground tombs of Tierradentro (literally belowground) are decorated with motifs of a pre-Hispanic society.


Pontivicia Universidad Javeriana
Universidad de Antioquia
Official website of the University of Antioquia, Medellín (in Spanish)
Universidad de los Andes
Universidad EAFIT
The official university website provides information about EAFIT and its study programs.
Universidad La Gran Colombia
Universidad Nacional
The National University of Colombia, a public, research university with branches in Bogotá, Medellín, Manizales and Palmira.
Universidad Nacional / Medellín
Universidad del Valle
The University of Valle is a public, research university in Cali, Valle del Cauca.

Colombian Institute for Science and Techonology Development
Puracé volcano in Puracé National Natural Park
Puracé volcano in Puracé National Natural Park, seen from the colonial city of Popayán.
Image: Diesalcedo

Environment & Nature

Parques Nacionales Naturales de Colombia
Site of the National System of Protected Areas in Colombia.

WWF Colombia
WWF Colombia site. (in Spanish)
WWF in Colombia
Site about WWF's work in Colombia.


Archivo General de la Nación
The Colombian National Archive. (in Spanish)
Departamento de Historia, Universidad del Valle
Department of History (in Spanish)
History of Colombia
Documents about Colombia's history by World History Archives.
History of Colombia
From Wikipedia.


Issues Colombia

Decades of conflict have turned Colombia into one of the world's worst humanitarian hotspots. More than 3 million people have been forced from their homes and tens of thousands have been killed. The main players are government troops, leftist rebels, right-wing militias and cocaine cartels.

Sites related to the very difficult political and social situation in Colombia.

Washington Post
Article about the possible end of a long-running war (2016).

The Guardian
Colombia: is the end in sight to the world's longest war? (2016)

Human Rights Watch: Colombia
HRW Org about Colombia.

__Sites from and about abductees of the FARC
Ingrid Betancourt and Clara Rojas since Februar 2002 prisoners of the FARC. A multilingual site for information on Ingrid's and Clara's abduction.
Die dunkle Seite der FARC
The dark side of the FARC, site from FARC abductees Ulrich and Thomas Künzel, and Reiner Bruchmann. (in German)

Various Interest Groups of Colombia

Right-wing paramilitaries, who have deep links with the army and police.
AUC - Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia
The right-wing paramilitary United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia.
The bulk of the AUC's blocs was demobilized by early 2006 and its former top leaders were extradited to the U.S. in 2008. However, local successors such as the Black Eagles (Spanish: Águilas Negras) continue to exist and death threats have been made using its name.

__Marxist guerrilla groups:
The National Liberation Army, Colombia's second largest guerrilla group. (in Spanish)
FARC-EP - Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia
The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia - Ejercito del Pueblo, Colombia's main guerrilla group.

Etnias de Colombia
Site for and about ethnic groups of Colombia, by Fundación Hemera. (in Spanish)

Sources and additional Information on Colombia

Amnesty International: Colombia

BBC Country Profile: Colombia

FAO: Colombia

GlobalEDGE: Colombia

The Heritage Foundation: Colombia

Human Rights Watch: Colombia

OEC: Colombia

Reporters Without Borders: Colombia

Wikipedia: Colombia

The World Factbook -- Colombia
 Support UNICEF

Other Countries of South America:
Argentina | Bolivia | Brazil | Chile | Ecuador | French Guiana
Guyana | Paraguay | Peru | Suriname | Uruguay | Venezuela

Major Cities in South America:
Belo Horizonte, Bogotá, Brasilia, Buenos Aires, Caracas, La Paz, Lima, Manaus, Montevideo, Paramaribo,
Porto Alegre, Quito, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador (da Bahia, Santiago, São Paulo, Sucre

Countries of Middle and Central America:
Belize | Costa Rica | El Salvador | Guatemala | Honduras | Mexico | Nicaragua | Panama