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Niagara River and Niagara Falls, Bridal Veil (USA) and Horseshoe Falls (partly in Canada)
The Niagara River connects Lake Erie with Lake Ontario. At one point along its path, the river has a vertical drop of more than 50 m (165 feet). The cascade is known as Niagara Falls. The falls seen from Skylon Tower - left: Bridal Veil (USA) and on the right side Horseshoe Falls (partly in Canada).
Image: Wladyslaw

Location map of Canada. Where in the world is Canada?
Location map of Canada

Flag of Canada
Flag of Canada

Canada in brief

Destination Canada, a Nations Online country profile of the second-largest country in the world.

Canada occupies most of the northern part of North America. The country is bounded by the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, the North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north.
It borders Alaska (USA) in the west, and twelve US states of the continental part of the United States in the south. Its border with its southern neighbor runs mainly along the 45th parallel (north). It is the world's longest international border between two countries (8,891 km (5,525 mi)).

Canada shares maritime borders with Greenland (an autonomous territory of Denmark) and Saint Pierre and Miquelon, a small island territory that belongs to France.

The country occupies an area of 9,984,670 km², making it the largest country in the Western Hemisphere. Compared, it is slightly larger than the US, or 18 times the size of France.

Map of Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay, the large shallow inland sea indenting east-central Canada.

Canada has 13 sub-national divisions, ten provinces, and three territories. Each province has its system of local government. The region of what is today Canada was a long time part of colonial North America. The area became a self-governing colony in the mid 19th century while retaining ties to the British crown. On 1 July 1867, the British North America Act (today known as the Constitution Act, 1867) created Canada with its initial four provinces of Ontario, Québec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia.

Canada is divided into multiple geographical regions, and its landscape offers a wide range of natural sceneries. The Canadian Shield, the largest geographical area, encompasses half the country and centers on Hudson Bay. Canada's southeastern region is dominated by lowlands, bordered by the Great Lakes: Lake Michigan, Lake Superior, Lake Erie, and Lake Ontario.

Canada has a population of 38 million people (in 2020), which is only about 10% of the number of inhabitants of the neighboring USA. The national capital is Ottawa, the largest city is Toronto. Spoken languages are English and French.

Canada | Dominion of Canada


Canada is a land of vast distances and rich natural resources; it became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. In 1982, Canada entirely broke from its colonial past; it transferred the country's highest law, the British North America Act (which was renamed the Constitution Act, 1867), from the British Parliament's authority to Canada's federal and provincial legislatures.

Economically and technologically, Canada has developed in parallel with the US. The country faces the political challenges of meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care, education, social services, and economic competitiveness and responding to the particular concerns of predominantly francophone Quebec. Canada also aims to develop its diverse energy resources while maintaining its commitment to the environment.

Canada ranks 13th in the United Nations Human Development Index for 2019. The country ranks 11th in the UN World Happiness Report 2019.



Country Profile

Official Name:
Formal title: Dominion of Canada

ISO Country Code: ca, CAN

Actual Time:
Halifax: Fri-Mar-1  19:57
Local Time = UTC -4h
Montreal, Toronto, Ottawa, Iqaluit: Fri-Mar-1  18:57
Local Time = UTC -5h
Winnipeg: Fri-Mar-1  17:57
Local Time = UTC -6h
Calgary, Yellowknife: Fri-Mar-1  16:57
Local Time = UTC -7h
Vancouver: Fri-Mar-1  15:57
Local Time = UTC -8h
Map of Canada's time zone anomalies.

Country Calling Code: +1

Capital City: Ottawa (pop. 1 million) more

Official Sites of Canada

Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

Centre Block and the Library of Parliament, Ottawa
View of the Centre Block and the Peace Tower, the main building of the Canadian parliament (right) and the Library of Parliament (left) on Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Ontario.

Image: DXR

Political System
Canada's political system is a federal parliamentary representative democracy with a formal constitutional monarchy. Chief of State is the British monarch (Queen Elizabeth II) represented by the Governor-General, who is appointed by the monarch. Theoretically, the executive power lies with the monarch, but in practice, the monarch and his representative are apolitical and predominantly perform ceremonial functions. Head of Government is the Canadian Prime Minister (Justin Trudeau). The Parliament of Canada consists of three parts, the sovereign, represented by the Governor-General of Canada, the Senate (Upper House), and the House of Commons.

Official Government Sites of Canada

Note: External links will open in a new browser window. The official Canadian websites are mostly bilingual: English and French.

Government of Canada
The Official Canada Government Site.

Governor General
The Governor General of Canada represents The Queen (Queen Elizabeth II), the Head of State.

Government of Canada Departments and Agencies
Index of Government of Canada Departments, Agencies, Crown Corporations, Special Operating Agencies, and various affiliated organizations.

Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade
Homepage of the Department.

Diplomatic Missions
Permanent Mission of Canada to the United Nations
Information about Canada's Permanent Mission to the UN.
Embassy of Canada to the United States
Embassy of Canada in Washington. D.C.
Consulate General of Canada in New York

Canadian Embassies and Missions worldwide
Address List of Canadian Diplomatic Missions Abroad.
Foreign Diplomatic Missions in Canada
Address List of Foreign Diplomatic Missions accredited to Canada.

Statistics Canada
Canadian statistics and more.

Environment Canada
Official Canadian Weather.

The three thrones in Canada's Senate chamber
Canada's Senate chamber in the Centre Block on Parliament Hill, in the center the three thrones, for the Canadian monarch, the consort of the monarch, and the Speaker of the Senate.
Image: © Saffron Blaze



Maps of Canada

Canada Administrative Map detail
Administrative Map of Canada (click map to enlarge)
Image: ©


Map of Canada
Administrative Map of Canada with international borders,
provincial boundaries, provincial capitals, major cities, and major airports.

Google Earth Google Earth Map Canada
Searchable map and satellite view of Canada.
Google Earth Google Earth Map Ottawa
Searchable map and satellite view of Canada's capital city.
Google Earth Google Earth Map Calgary
Searchable map and satellite view of Calgary City.
Google Earth Google Earth Map Montreal
Searchable map and satellite view of Canada's second-largest city.
Google Earth Google Earth Map Quebec
Searchable map and satellite view of Quebec City.
Google Earth Google Earth Map Toronto
Searchable map and satellite view of Canada's largest city.
Google Earth Google Earth Map Vancouver
Searchable map and satellite view of Canada's third-largest city.

Map of North America
Reference Map of North America. 

More Maps:

The Atlas of Canada
Geography and Maps of Canada

The Atlas of Canada - Physiographic Regions
Physiographic regions of Canada.

Canada Relief map
Relief map of Canada.



News of Canada

Canadian Newsstand

Canadian Newspaper


The Globe and Mail
Canada's most widely read newspaper with news, information, commentary, and interactive discussions.

Le Journal de Montréal
Internet presence of the French language tabloid newspaper.
Le Journal de Québec
Same same, but different.

Montreal Gazette
English-language daily newspaper published in Montreal.

National Post
The flagship publication of Postmedia Network, which publishes several Canadian broadsheets and tabloid daily newspapers.

Times Colonist
English-language daily newspaper in Victoria, British Columbia, owned by Glacier Media Group.

The Toronto Star
National and international news by the Canadian broadsheet newspaper.

Vancouver Sun
Internet edition of the Canadian broadsheet newspaper.

Cable Public Affairs Channel - cpac
Canada's Political Channel.

CBC News
Canada's Online News Resource.

CBC Radio
Listen to CBC Radio, Canada's National Broadcaster.

CTV News
Current news from Canada and the world.

Radio Canada International
Canadas Voice to the World.

Radio Canada Nouvelles
Canada News (in French)

Online News
Canadian related portal with news. is owned and operated by Postmedia Network Inc., Canada’s largest publisher by circulation of paid English-language daily newspapers.



Arts & Culture of Canada

L'écho des rêveurs. Installation by Caravane BLING BLING! in the Jardin de Saint-Roch in Quebec City.
L'écho des rêveurs (The echo of dreamers). Installation by Caravane BLING BLING! An artwork in the Jardin de Saint-Roch in Quebec City.
Image: Cephas

Arts & Culture

Contemporary and Fine Arts

Art Gallery of Ontario
AGO presents 1000 years of extraordinary art.

Canada Council for the Arts - Le conseil des arts du Canada
An agency that fosters the development of the arts in Canada through grants, services, and awards (Canadian artists only).

McMichael Canadian Art Collection
Paintings, sculptures, drawings, and prints by First Nations, Inuit, and contemporary Canadian artists.

Montreal Museum of Fine Arts
Fine Arts collections.

Musée d'art contemporain de Montréal
Contemporary Québec art and international contemporary art.

National Gallery of Canada
Musée des Beaux-Arts du Canada.

Vancouver Art Gallery
Contemporary art.


CBC Arts
A guide to cultural events by CBC.

broken pencil
The guide to alternative culture in Canada. - Zone Culture
A spot on cultural events (in French)

Well Known People Who Happen to be Canadian
Canadian Celebs.


Canada Aviation and Space Museum
The Canada Aviation and Space Museum focuses on aviation in Canada within an international context – from its beginnings in 1909 until today.

Canadian Museum of Nature
More than a natural history museum.

Museum of Anthropology MOA
Objects and expressions of human creativity.

Museum of Civilization in Quebec City
Site of the Human Adventure.

Royal British Columbia Museum
The human and natural history of British Columbia.

Royal Ontario Museum
The ROM will inspire wonder and build an understanding of human cultures and the natural world.

Royal Tyrrell Museum
Canadian dinosaurs.

Textile Museum of Canada
The permanent collection contains more than 10 000 textiles and spans almost 2 000 years and 190 world regions.

Virtual Museum of Canada
A Guide to Canadian Museums and Galleries and other cultural institutions.

First Nations totem poles in Stanley Park, City of Vancouver
First Nations totem poles at Brockton Point in Stanley Park, City of Vancouver. According to the Vancouver Parks Board, the Totem Poles in Stanley Park are the most visited attraction in Vancouver.



Business & Economy of Canada

Toronto's Financial District with the old city hall.
View from Pantages Tower to the financial district of Toronto with the old city hall. It is the central business district of Canada's economic capital.
Image: Arild Vågen 

Economy of Canada
Canada is among the world's wealthiest nations. The country is a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the Group of Seven (G7). The backbone of Canada's economy is the service industry, which employs about three-quarters of the country's workforce. Other important economic sectors are the wood and oil industry as well as the manufacturing industry with its automobile and aircraft industry.

Banks and Stock Exchanges

Bank of Canada
Canada's central bank.
Business Development Bank of Canada (BDC)
A federal Crown corporation wholly owned by the Government of Canada.

Canada's Big Five banks

Bank of Montreal
The Canadian multinational investment bank and financial services company maintains headquarters in Montreal and Toronto.
Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce
CIBC is a chartered bank with its headquarters in Toronto.
Royal Bank of Canada
Canadian multinational financial services company and the largest bank in Canada.
The Bank of Nova Scotia is a Canadian multinational banking and financial services company with headquarters in Toronto.
Toronto-Dominion Bank
TD is a Canadian multinational banking and financial services company with headquarters in Toronto.

Stock Exchange
Bourse de Montréal
The Montréal Stock Exchange (MX) is owned by Toronto-based TMX Group.
TSX Group
The Toronto Stock Exchange is one of the top 10 largest stock exchanges in the world.


Business and industry
Canadian government services for doing businesses in Canada. The website provides information about permits and regulations, intellectual property, business support, and how to sell to the government.

Canadian Chamber of Commerce
The Canadian Chamber of Commerce is Canada's largest and most influential business association.

List of the largest companies in Canada
Wikipedia's list of Canada's largest companies in terms of revenue, net income, and total assets.


Air Canada
Canada's largest airline and the country's flag carrier.

West Jet Air
Second-largest Canadian air carrier.

Coach Canada
Bus services in Quebec and Ontario.
Greyhound Canada
Greyhound Canada is the largest provider of intercity bus transportation in Canada. (temporarily suspend)
Low-cost bus service in Canada.

Canadian National Railway
CN is Canada's largest railroad company based in Montreal; it provides freight services in Canada and the USA.
Canadian Pacific Railway
The other freight railway.

The Rocky Mountaineer
The Rocky Mountaineer operates rail tours through British Columbia and Alberta.

Ontario Northland Railway
ONT operates freight and passenger services in northern Ontario.

VIA Rail Canada
VIA, the federal crown corporation operates intercity passenger rail service in Canada.

Canadian National Railway pass a Rocky Mountaineer tourist train
A 140-car goods train of the Canadian National Railway passes a Rocky Mountaineer tourist train in the Thompson valley west of Kamloops in British Columbia.
Image: The Land 



Tourism in Canada

Castle Mountain in Banff National Park
Castle Mountain from the Bow River bank in the Banff National Park in the Canadian Rockies.
Image: Jakub Fryš

Destination Canada - Travel and Tour Guides


Discover Canada:
Canadian Rockies, Jasper National Park, Rocky Mountains, Columbia Icefield, Banff National Park, Moraine Lake, Niagara Falls, Niagara Parks Butterfly Conservatory, Lake Ontario, Toronto Islands, Nahanni National Park Reserve, hotels, accommodation, attractions, festivals, events, tourist boards, nature, biking, skiing, climbing, tours and much more.

Experience Canada, Virtually
A comprehensive travel and tourism guide to Canada by the Canadian Tourism Commission.

Destination Canada
The official Business Site of the Canadian Tourism Commission.

Travel and tourism in Canada
Official Government of Canada travel information.

Parks Canada
The official guide to Canada's National Parks.

City Guides

The Official Website of Canadas Capital.
Ottawa SmartCapital gateway
Online services for all sectors of the City of Ottawa.

Toronto's official website.

The city of Montreal.

Official Vancouver website.

Aurora Village
Aurora Village on the Ingraham Trail near Yellowknife is one of the world's best places to see the Northern Lights.

The Canadian Provinces and Territories
more links and travel information on Canada and its Provinces and Territories: the ten provinces and three territories: Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, and Yukon.

Rocky Mountain peaks in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada
Rocky Mountain peaks in Banff National Park in Alberta. Canada's oldest national park was established in 1885.
Image: Bernard Spragg. NZ



UNESCO World Heritage Sites

View of Old Quebec, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Quebec province of Canada
View of Quebec City from the ferry terminal. The building on the hill is Château Frontenac, a National Historic Site of Canada. The Historic District of Old Québec is also a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Image: Dennis Jarvis

UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Canada
There are 20 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Canada, nine cultural and ten natural sites, plus one mixed. Additionally, eleven properties are listed on UNESCO's Tentative List (see the List of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Canada).

World Heritage Site L’anse aux Meadows National Historic Site
An archaeological site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland. The remains of an 11th-century Viking settlement are evidence of the first European presence in North America.

World Heritage Site Gros Morne National Park
Continental drift at work! The Gros Morne National Park is a rare example of the process of continental drift, where the deep ocean crust and the rocks of the Earth's mantle are exposed.

World Heritage Site Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump
A buffalo jump is a cliff formation that Native Americans used to hunt and kill plains bison in large quantities.

World Heritage Site Historic District of Old Québec
The only city in North American that has preserved its ramparts, together with its numerous bastions, gates, and defensive works that still surround Old Québec.

World Heritage Site Waterton Glacier International Peace Park
In 1932 Waterton Lakes National Park (Alberta, Canada) was combined with the Glacier National Park (Montana, United States) to form the world's first International Peace Park.

Western Brook Pond in the Gros Morne National Park of Newfoundland, Canada.
Western Brook Pond in Gros Morne National Park on the west coast of the island of Newfoundland, Canada.
Image: Adavyd


Education in Canada

University College, south side, University of Toronto
The south side of the University College building, a constituent college of the University of Toronto. It was founded in 1853 as an institution of higher learning free of religious affiliation.
Image: Jphillips23

Major Canadian Universities

Universities Canada
The organization represents Canada's colleges and universities.

McGill University
McGill is a renowned public research university in Montreal, founded in 1821.

McMaster University
McMaster is a high ranking public research university with six academic faculties located in Hamilton, Ontario.

University of Alberta
UAlberta is a public research university located in Edmonton, Alberta.

University of British Columbia
The University of British Columbia in Vancouver is a public research university with campuses in Vancouver and Kelowna; it has the largest number of students enrolled in western Canada.

University of Calgary
UCalgary is a public research university located in Calgary, Alberta.

Université Laval
The French-language public research university in Quebec City is the oldest center of higher learning in Canada.

Université de Montréal
UdeM is a French-language public research university in Montreal, Quebec.

University of New Brunswick
UNB is a public university with campuses in Fredericton, the capital of New Brunswick, and Saint John, a city on the Bay of Fundy. The university was founded in 1785 as the Academy of Liberal Arts and Sciences.

University of Toronto
UToronto is a public research university in Toronto, founded in 1827 as King's College.

Study in Canada
Informational site on educational studies in Canada.

Earth Sciences
Government gateway to Canada's research institutions in the field of earth sciences.

Canadian Space Agency
Be prepared for the future.

The Royal Canadian Geographical Society
Canadian nonprofit educational organization dedicated to promoting and enhancing public awareness for Canadian geography.

Canada Science and Technology Museum
The museum invites visitors to learn about Canadian science, technology, and innovation.

National Research Council
Canada's premier science and technology research organization.

The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
The national instrument for making strategic investments in Canada's capability in science and technology.

Ontario Science Centre
The Science Centre is a space where visitors can learn and discover ways to think like a scientist.

Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada
Social sciences and humanities.



Environment & Nature

Peyto Lake in Banff National Park
Peyto Lake seen from a viewpoint at Icefields Parkway in Banff National Park, Alberta.
Image: Tobias Alt

Environment Canada's Green Lane
Environment Canada's Internet resource for weather and environmental information. The Green Lane TM helps connect Canadians, exchange information, and share knowledge for environmental decision-making.

Canadian Biodiversity
Canadian Biodiversity Information Network
Official information site of Biodiversity in Canada.
The Canadian Biodiversity Web Site
Site about biodiversity and especially Canada's biodiversity.

Canadian landscapes and landforms
Parks Canada
A guide to Canadian National Historic Sites and National Parks.
Canadian Landscapes
A great collection of photos of Canadian landscapes and landforms.

Nature Conservation
Nature Canada
Site of Nature Canada, one of Canada's leading conservation groups.

Fisheries and Oceans Canada
Fisheries and Oceans Canada is the federal department responsible for protecting Canadian waters and managing the country's fisheries, oceans, and freshwater resources.

Canadian Wildlife Federation

The Hinterland Who's Who - Canadian Wildlife Service
Hinterland Who's Who was created in the early 1960s to interest the public in wildlife conservation.

Canadian Museum of Nature
The Canadian Museum of Nature is a natural history in Ottawa.

Natural Resources Canada
Government information about Energy Sources and Distribution, Mining, Forestry in Canada, and Climate Change.

Environmental organizations based in Canada
Wikipedia list of environmental organizations based in Canada.



Canada History

Interieur of the House of Assembly in the Parliament of Montreal, 1848.
The House of Assembly, in the Parliament of Montreal, around 1848.
Painting by James Duncan, a Canadian 19th-century painter and lithographer

Library and Archives Canada
Online access to resources, services and the collection of the Library and Archives Canada.

Discover Canada - Canada's History
Canadian government pages about the history of the country.

Canadian History Research Guide: Primary Sources
History Research Guide to primary sources by Brandon University.

Canada's History
Canada's History by Canada's History Society.

Canada - A Country by Consent
A Canadian history project.

The Canadian Encyclopedia
Canada's national encyclopedia is a source of information on Canada published by Historica Canada of Toronto.

Canadian Heritage
The government department promotes "Canadian identity and values, cultural development, and heritage".

Digital Archive Ontario
Explore Ontario's present, past, and future, through historical photographs, maps, digitized books, videos, and blog posts.

CBC Archives
The site provides a timeline and radio and television clips from the archives of the CBC about Canada's newer history.

Canadian Museum of History
Virtual Museum of Canada's Civilization.

Virtual Museum of New France
History of the French exploration of North America.

Wikipedia W The History of Canada
Wikipedia articles about Canada's history, covering the period from the arrival of Paleo-Indians thousands of years ago to the present day.


Indigenous Peoples of Canada

13th Annual Canadian Aboriginal Festiva
A Canadian Aboriginal Festival.
Image: Bahman

First Nation, Inuit, and Métis of Canada

The Canadian Constitution recognizes three groups of Aboriginal peoples: Indians (more commonly referred to as First Nations), Inuit, and Métis. These are three distinct peoples with unique histories, languages, cultural practices, and spiritual beliefs.

Indigenous peoples and communities

Canadian government website about the country's First Nation, Inuit, and Métis communities.

First Nations

Assembly of First Nations - Assemblée des Premières Nations
The Assembly of First Nations (AFN) is a national advocacy organization representing First Nation citizens in Canada.

Aboriginal Heritage
Government information about Canada's First Nations and aboriginal heritage.

Aboriginal Multi-Media Society
AMMSA is a news and communications society dedicated to serving the news and information needs of Indigenous people across Canada.

Indigenous Tourism Association of Canada
Web presence to promote indigenous tourism in Canada.

Ojibwe Cultural Foundation
Foundation to preserve and revitalize the language, culture, arts, spirituality, and traditions of the Anishinaabe people.

Wikipedia W Indigenous peoples in Canada
Wikipedia page about indigenous Canadians.



Additional Information

Selected country profiles of Canada published by international organizations.


Amnesty International: Canada
Amnesty International is a non-governmental organization focused on human rights.

BBC Country Profile: Canada
Country profiles by the British public service broadcaster.

Commonwealth of Nations: Canada
Canada is a member country of the Commonwealth.

Freedom House: Canada
The U.S. government-funded non-profit organization whose goal is to promote liberal democracies worldwide.

GlobalEDGE: Canada
Canada ranking by the Global business knowledge portal.

The Heritage Foundation: Canada
Index of Economic Freedom by The Heritage Foundation, an American conservative think tank.

Human Rights Watch: Canada
HRW conducts research and advocacy on human rights.

OEC: Canada
The Observatory of Economic Complexity provides the latest international trade data.

Reporters Without Borders: Canada
RSF (Reporters sans frontières) is an international NGO that defends and promotes media freedom.

Wikipedia: Canada
Wikipedia's Canada page in many languages.

Worldbank Data: Canada
World Development Indicators database.

The World Factbook -- Canada
The CIA World Factbook's Canada Page.



Other Countries in the Americas
Argentina | Belize | Bolivia | Brazil | Chile | Colombia | Costa Rica | Ecuador | El Salvador | French Guiana | Guatemala | Guyana | Honduras | Mexico | Nicaragua | Panama | Paraguay | Peru | Suriname | USA | Uruguay | Venezuela

Countries and Territories in the Caribbean
Anguilla | Antigua and Barbuda | Aruba | Bahamas | Barbados | British Virgin Islands | Cuba | Dominica | Dominican Republic | Grenada | Guadeloupe | Haiti | Jamaica | Martinique | Montserrat | Netherlands Antilles | Puerto Rico | Saint Kitts and Nevis | Saint Lucia | Saint Vincent and the Grenadines | Trinidad and Tobago | U.S. Virgin Islands