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Tigray Escarpment, Ethiopia
Tigray Escarpment in northern Ethiopia. The Sacred Landscapes of Tigray is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Image: Rod Waddington

Location map of Ethiopia. Where in Africa is Ethiopia?
Location map of Ethiopia

Flag of Ethiopia
Flag of Ethiopia

Ethiopia in brief

Destination Ethiopia, a Nations Online country profile of the land formerly known as Abyssinia.

Ethiopia is a landlocked country on the Horn of Africa, in the east of the continent. The country lost its access to the Red Sea in 1992 when Eritrea gained its independence from Ethiopia. It is bordered by Djibouti, Eritrea, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, and Somaliland (Somalia).

The country covers an area of 1,126,829 km²; this is about twice the size of France or the U.S. state of Texas. The highest elevation is Mount Ras Dashen, with 4620 m.

A population of more than 114 million inhabitants (in 2020) makes the country the second-most populous nation in Africa behind Nigeria. The country comprises more than 80 ethnic groups and as many languages.

Ethiopia | Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia | Ityop'iya


Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa and one of the world's oldest - it exists for at least 2,000 years. The country comprises more than 80 ethnic groups and as many languages. Primarily their shared independent existence unites Ethiopia's many nations. Unique among African countries, Ethiopia has never been colonized, one exception being the occupation by Italy in 1936-41.

In 1974 a military junta, the Derg, deposed Emperor Haile SELASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and massive refugee problems, the regime of Mengistu Hailemariam was finally toppled by a coalition of rebel forces, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), in 1991.

A new constitution was adopted in 1994, which guaranteed the religious rights and the cultural and political rights of all ethnic groups. Ethiopia's first multiparty elections were held in 1995. With a peace treaty on 12 December 2000, a 30-year-old struggle with Eritrea ended.


Country Profile

Official Name:
Ityop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik
short form: Ityop'iya
int'l long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.
int'l short form: Ethiopia
abbreviation: FDRE
former: Abyssinia, Italian East Africa.

ISO Country Code: et, ETH

Actual Time : Thu-July-18  05:30
Ethiopian Standard Time = UTC +3h
Ethiopia does not operate Daylight-Saving Time.

Country Calling Code: +251

Capital: Addis Ababa (pop. 3 million) more

Official Sites of Ethiopia

Gate to the Ethiopian Parliament in Addis Ababa.
Gate to the Ethiopian Parliament in Addis Ababa.
Image: Alan Johnston

Political System of Ethiopia

The oldest independent country in Africa is a federal parliamentary republic. Chief of state is the President, head of government is the Prime Minister. Executive power is held by the government. The legislative power is vested in the parliament. Ethiopia's parliament consists of the House of Federation (upper chamber) and the House of Peoples' Representatives (lower chamber).

In October 2016, the government ordered a state of emergency that permits draconian restrictions on the rights to freedom of expression, association, and assembly. The order followed a year of protests during which security forces killed hundreds of protesters and detained tens of thousands.
After years of widespread protests against government policies and brutal security force repression, a series of human rights reforms were ushered in after Abiy Ahmed became prime minister in April 2018.

Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

Official Sites of Ethiopia

FDRE Office of the Prime Minister
Official website of the office of the Ethiopian Prime Minister.

The Parliament of Ethiopia
The site has information regarding the structures, powers and functions of the two Houses.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of FDRE
Official site of the ministry.

Ethiopian Government Electronic Service Portal
The government site provides electronic public services to citizens, non-citizens, businesses, and governmental and non-governmental organizations.

Diplomatic Missions
The Ethiopian Government Information Service
by the Ethiopian Embassy of Sweden.
Permanent Mission of Ethiopia to the United Nations
Ethiopia's Permanent Representation at the UN.
Embassy of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia in Canada
Official Website of the Embassy in Ottawa.
Embassy of The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia in the UK
Official Website of the UK Embassy in London.
Embassy of Ethiopia Washington, DC
Website of the Ethiopian Embassy in Washington, DC.
Ethiopian diplomatic missions abroad
Address list of Ethiopian diplomatic missions abroad.

royal Imperial Ethiopia
The official site of the Imperial Crown Council of Ethiopia, the governing body of the Imperial Family of Ethiopia, Africa's oldest royal dynasty.

Abiy Ahmed and Paul Kagame Abiy Ahmed and Paul Kagame in conversation
Abiy Ahmed, the Prime Minister of Ethiopia (r), and Paul Kagame, the President of Rwanda (l), in a private conversation in Addis-Ababa.
Image: Paul Kagame



Maps of Ethiopia

Map shows Ethiopia and neighboring countries
Map of Ethiopia (click map to enlarge)
Image: ©


Map of Ethiopia
Political Map of Ethiopia.
Google Earth Google Earth Ethiopia
Searchable map and satellite view of Ethiopia.
Google Earth Google Earth Addis Ababa
Searchable map and satellite view of Ethiopia's capital city.

Political Map of Africa
The 54 countries of Africa.
Map of Africa
A Relief Map of Africa.


News of Ethiopia

Ethiopia newspapers

Online News from Ethiopia

Like in many African countries, radio is the medium of choice, reaching rural areas where most people live. Ethiopia was among Africa’s leading jailers of journalists and had little independent media. According to RSF, many imprisoned journalists and bloggers were released, and the new authorities also restored access to more than 200 news websites and blogs that had been blocked for years. Even Ethiopian television stations based abroad can now operate freely. [1]

News Agencies
ENA is the official news agency of the Government of Ethiopia.

Ethiopian Press Agency - Herald
State-owned daily in English.

Addis Admass
A privately owned Amharic-language weekly.

Addis Fortune
Business weekly.

Addis Standard
Addis Standard is a monthly English private news magazine.

Business weekly.

Ethiopian Reporter
Online edition of the Ethiopian daily.

Walta Information Centre (WIC)
Ethiopian privately owned media conglomerate that is owned and operated by the Ethiopian government.

Swiss-based independent portal site with public service for the Ethiopian community.

Ethiopian Broadcasting Authority (EBA)
The Ethiopian Broadcasting Authority is the federal media regulatory authority.

Admas Radio
Atlanta based Ethiopian radio talk show.

The Ethiopian Satellite Television and Radio is an Ethiopian satellite news network based in Washington D.C.

Fana Broadcasting Corporate
News by Radio Fana, now called Fana Broadcasting Corporate.

International News sources

Al Jazeera Ethiopia News
Ethiopia-related news from the Qatari broadcaster based in Doha.

Associated Press Ethiopia
Ethiopia news by AP news agency.

The Guardian Ethiopia
Ethiopia-related news from the UK based newspaper The Guardian.


Arts & Culture of Ethiopia

Ben Abeba restaurant in Lalibela
Ben Abeba restaurant in Lalibela, Amhara region of Ethiopia.
Image: Norbert Bergler

Arts & Culture

How Ethiopian art secured its spot on the world's stage
CNN article about Ethiopian art.

Debre Hayq Ethiopian Art Gallery
The site promotes visual artists from Ethiopia.

Ethiopian Music streaming service catering for the Ethiopian music lovers.

Mulatu Astatke (Official Artist Page)
Site of Mulatu Astatke, composer, arranger and the founder of Ethio Jazz. Born in Jimma, Ethiopia.

An Ethiopian Online Literary Page; Ethiopia, Tigrigna, Amharic, English poetry, stories, essays, news, literature, novels and book reviews.

Amharic-English English-Amharic Dictionary
With downloadable PC and Mac Fonts.



Business & Economy of Ethiopia

Train of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti Railway
The Addis Ababa-Djibouti Railway is an international railway line connecting Ethiopia's capital with the Port of Doraleh in Djibouti. Landlocked Ethiopia has been using Djibouti's port as its most important maritime transshipment point for the last two decades.
Image: Skilla1st

Economy of Ethiopia
Ethiopia's economy is primarily based on agriculture. More than 70% of the Ethiopian population is employed in agriculture. In recent years, services have replaced agriculture as the main source of GDP.

Business Links
National Bank of Ethiopia
The National Bank of Ethiopia is the central bank of Ethiopia with headquarters in Addis Ababa.

Ethiopia Commodity Exchange
Buy and sell shares of coffee, oilseeds, and pulses.

Addis Ababa Chamber of Commerce
Official website of the Addis Ababa Chamber of Commerce and Sectoral Associations (AACCSA).

Ethiopian Investment Agency (EIA)
EIA is a government agency promoting private investment, primarily foreign direct investment.

A business portal site.

National Oil Ethiopia
NOC Ethiopia is the country's first major domestic oil marketer.

Ethiopian Telecommunications Corporation
The government-owned Ethiopian telecommunication company serves as the country's major internet and telephone service provider.


Ethiopian Airlines
Ethiopia's flag carrier serves destinations in Africa, Europe, the USA, and Asia.

Ethiopian Airlines fleet at Bole International Airport
Ethiopian Airlines fleet at Bole International Airport in Addis Ababa. Addis Ababa Bole International is Ethiopia's principal airport.
Image: Alan Wilson 



Tourism in Ethiopia

Blue Nile Falls (Tis Abay), Ethiopia
Blue Nile Falls (Tis Abay), located about 27 km downstream from Lake Tana.
Image: CT Snow

Destination Ethiopia - Travel and Tour Guides


Discover Ethiopia:
Lake Tana (the source of the Blue Nile), Blue Nile Falls (waterfall on the upper course of the river); Simien Mountains National Park, the UNESCO World Heritage Site offers nice bluffs, deep valleys, and a high plateau, including Ras Dashen, the highest mountain in Ethiopia at 4,550 m; Harenna Forest, a region of the Bale Mountains; Valley of Marvels" a rock formation near Babille, Oromia.

Visit Ethiopia
Country information by the Ethiopian Embassy in London.

Ethiopia eVisa
Visa and travel information.

Wikivoyage Logo Wikivoyage Ethiopia
Wikipedia's travel guide to Ethiopia in many languages.

Experience Ethiopia Travel
Ethiopian owned company provides information on travel to and in Ethiopia.

Dear Ethiopia
Travel through Ethiopia and discover Ethiopian wonders.

Wikipedia W Tourism in Ethiopia
Wikipedia page about tourism in Ethiopia.

Dallol volcano in the Afar Region of Ethiopia
Landscape at Dallol volcano, a cinder cone volcano in the Danakil Depression of the Afar Region in Ethiopia.
Image: A.Savin



UNESCO World Heritage Sites

Fasilides Palace in Fasil Ghebbi, Gondar, Ethiopia
Fasilides Palace in Fasil Ghebbi, Gondar, Ethiopia.
Image: Bernard Gagnon

UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Ethiopia
There are nine UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Ethiopia, eight cultural and one natural site. In addition, seven sites are included in UNESCO's tentative list for Ethiopia (see the List of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Ethiopia).

World Heritage Site
Rock-Hewn Churches, Lalibela
Lalibela in the Amhara region of northern Ethiopia is a center of Ethiopian Christianity and one of Ethiopia's holiest cities. The town is famous for eleven monolithic rock-cut churches from the 13th-century.

World Heritage Site Fasil Ghebbi, Gondar Region
Fasil Ghebbi, the Royal Enclosure, is the remains of the 17th-century fortress-city founded by Emperor Fasilides (Fasil) within Gondar in the Amhara region of Ethiopia. It was for some time the home of the Ethiopian emperor Fasilides and his successors.

World Heritage Site Aksum
The ruins of the ancient city of Aksum, the heart of ancient Ethiopia (in present-day Eritrea, the Tigray Region and Yemen) in times when the Aksumite kingdom was part of the Mediterranean world and the most powerful empire between the Byzantine Empire and Persia.

World Heritage Site Simien National Park
Over time, massive erosion has created one of the most spectacular landscapes in the world on the Ethiopian plateau. The breathtaking landscape boasts with peaks, deep valleys, and steep cliffs that reach 1,500 meters in depth. The park serves as a refuge for extremely rare animal species such as the Gelada baboon, the Ethiopian wolf, and the Abyssinian ibex, a mountain goat found nowhere else in the world.

Great Stele lying broken in the Northern Stelae Park of Aksum
The Great Stele lying broken in the Northern Stelae Park of Aksum in the Tigray Region. Aksum is the site of the historic capital of the Aksumite Empire.
Image: Allamiro


Education in Ethiopia

Gate of the University in Addis Ababa
Gate of the University in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia.
Image: A.Savin

Addis Ababa University
The state university in Addis Ababa was founded in 1950. The site provides information about the university and its departments.

Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
AAiT is a research and teaching institute of Addis Ababa University and the leading institute of technology in Ethiopia.

Bahir Dar University
The Bahir Dar University is a major university in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia's second-largest city and the capital of the Amhara Region.

Hawassa University
An Ethiopian national university in Hawassa, a city on the shores of Lake Awasa in the Sidama Region.

Jimma University
Jimma is a leading public research university located in Jimma, Oromia, Ethiopia.

Rift Valley University College
RVU in Addis Ababa is the largest private university in Ethiopia.

University of Gondar
UoG is located in Gondar, Ethiopia's former capital; it is Ethiopia's oldest medical school, established as the Public Health College in 1954.



Environment & Nature

Semien mountains Ethiopia, a World Heritage Site
The Semien Mountains in northern Ethiopia is a World Heritage Site that includes the Semien Mountains National Park.
Image: © Hulivili

Environment - Environmental Organizations Ethiopia

The Action for Social Development and Environmental Protection Organization (ASDEPO) is an Ethiopian indigenous, non-governmental and non-profit humanitarian organization founded in 2013.

UN Environment in Ethiopia
UN Environment in Ethiopia. The United Nations liaison office in Ethiopia.

Intergovernmental Organization
The Intergovernmental Authority on Development, a regional grouping of seven Eastern African countries, was created in 1986 to fight the recurrent and severe droughts and other natural disasters that caused widespread famine, ecological degradation and economic hardship in the Eastern Africa region between 1974 and 1984.



Ethiopia History

Church of Saint George, Lalibela, Ethiopia
The Church of Saint George in Lalibela, a small town in the Amhara region in Ethiopia's northern highlands. The site is known for its eleven monolithic churches, which were hewn out of the rocks between 1,000 and 1,200 CE. The rock churches are a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1978.
Image: Nancy Carels

History of Ethiopia

About Ethiopia
A comprehensive collection of essays by Dr. Richard Pankhurst on Ethiopian history.

Ethiopian Empire
Wikipedia article about Abyssinia.

Eritrean–Ethiopian War
Wikipedia article about the Eritrean–Ethiopian War.

Ethiopia-Eritrea Conflict Page
The site was initially developed by the Eritrean Media and Information Task Force (Badme Task Force), a volunteer group of Eritrean-Americans in the Washington Metropolitan Area.

Ethiopian History 500bc - 1996
Comprehensive site about Ethiopian history.

First Italo-Ethiopian War
Wikipedia articles about Italy's invasion of Ethiopia.

History of Ethiopia
Wikipedia articles about the history of Ethiopia.

Prester John
Wikipedia article about the legendary Christian patriarch, presbyter (elder), and king.



Indigenous People of Ethiopia

Hamer people of the Southern Nations in Ethiopia
The Hamer people of Ethiopia are one of the tribes of the Southern Nations. They live in the Omo River valley near the border to Kenya.
Image: Rod Waddington

Native people of Ethiopia

Ethiopia's society is quite diverse and consists of more than 80 different ethnic groups. Most people in Ethiopia speak Afro-Asian languages, especially of the Cushitic and Semitic branches.

The Oromos are the largest ethnic group; they make up more than a third of the Ethiopian population. The Oromos speak Oromo. More than 50 million people speak the Cushitic language in various dialects.

The Amhara are Semitic people who live in the Ethiopian highlands, especially in the Amhara region. The second-largest ethnic group in the country speaks Amharic. Amharic is also the official working language of the federal government and the second language for many Ethiopians. More than 80% of the population of the Amharas are Ethiopian Orthodox Christians.

The Somali are the third-largest population group in Ethiopia. Somali people are a large ethnic group living in the Horn of Africa. At least 4.5 million Somali live in the Ogaden region (Somali Region) of Ethiopia. The Somalis are Muslim.

The Tigrinya are an ethnic group in the Tigray region of northern Ethiopia and southwestern Eritrea. They speak Tigrinya, a Semitic language spoken in parts of Eritrea and northern Ethiopia. Most Tigrayans are Ethiopian Orthodox Christians (90%).

Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region.
The Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region (SNNPR) is a multinational regional state of Ethiopia. The largest ethnic groups are Sidama, Welayta, Hadiya, Gurage, Gamo, Kafficho, Siltʼe, and Amhara.

Indigenous peoples in Ethiopia
IWGIA page about the indigenous peoples of Ethiopia.

People of Ethiopia
Wikipedia article about the highly diverse population of Ethiopia.

World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - Ethiopia
Minority Rights Group International at Refworld, page about Minorities and Indigenous Peoples of Ethiopia.


Additional Information

Selected country profiles of Ethiopia published by international organizations.


Amnesty International: Ethiopia
Amnesty International is a non-governmental organization focused on human rights.

BBC Country Profile: Ethiopia
Country profiles by the British public service broadcaster.

BTI Transformation Index Ethiopia

Ethiopia Country Report 2020 by Bertelsmann Stiftung.

FAO: Ethiopia
UN Food and Agriculture Organization.

Freedom House: Ethiopia
The U.S. government-funded non-profit organization whose goal is to promote liberal democracies worldwide.

GlobalEDGE: Ethiopia
Ethiopia ranking by the Global business knowledge portal.

The Heritage Foundation: Ethiopia
Index of Economic Freedom by The Heritage Foundation, an American conservative think tank.

Human Rights Watch: Ethiopia
HRW conducts research and advocacy on human rights.

OEC: Ethiopia
The Observatory of Economic Complexity provides the latest international trade data.

Reporters Without Borders: Ethiopia
RSF (Reporters sans frontières) is an international NGO that defends and promotes media freedom.

Wikipedia: Ethiopia
Wikipedia's Ethiopia page in many languages.

Worldbank Ethiopia
The World Bank In Ethiopia.

The World Factbook -- Ethiopia
The CIA World Factbook's Ethiopia Page.


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Other Countries of Eastern Africa
Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique
Réunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe

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Addis Ababa, Antananarivo, Asmara, Bujumbura, Dar es Salaam, Djibouti, Dodoma, Harare, Kampala, Kigali, Lilongwe, Lusaka, Maputo, Mogadishu, Mombasa, Moroni, Nairobi, Port Louis, Saint-Denis, Victoria