Topographic Map of the Iberian Peninsula
View of the Anboto ridge from the Alluitz summit in the Basque Mountains. With the Devil's mountain pass between the towns of Durango and Vitoria-Gasteiz in the center. Anboto, at 1331 m, is the highest peak of the Urkiola limestone mountain range, situated in the Basque Country in northeastern Spain.
Major Geographical Features of the Iberian Peninsula
The shaded relief map shows the Iberian Peninsula, an almost continent like peninsula at the southwestern tip of Europe. The peninsula, also known as Iberia, is home to the mainlands of Spain
, a small area of Southern France
, the tiny autonomous principality of Andorra
and the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar.
Iberia has an area
of 583.254 km²; it is about the size of Madagascar
, or slightly larger than twice the size of the US state
. The landmass is bounded by the Bay of Biscay (Atlantic) in the north, the Mediterranean Sea
in the south and east, the Alboran Sea (a body of water of the Mediterranean Sea) and the Bay of Cádiz in the south, and the North Atlantic Ocean in the west.
Church tower of the lost village of Mediano in the Embalse de Mediano, one of the largest reservoirs in northern Spain.
Image: Juan R. Lascorz
Iberia is separated from the rest of Europe by the Pyrenees, a mountain chain older than the Alps, with several three-thousanders. The Pyrenees were difficult to transcend in former times.
The area along Iberia's northern Atlantic coast, with the regions of Galicia, and the northern parts of Asturias, Cantabria, and the Basque Country is known as Green Spain
, because of its wet and temperate oceanic climate that fosters the growth of pastures and forests.
The center of the Iberian Peninsula is dominated by a vast high plateau, the Meseta Central
, with elevations from 600 to 760 m, which slopes gently to the west. In the center of the Meseta, towers the Sistema Central
, a system of mountain ranges, most prominent are the Serra de Estrela,
the Sierra de Guadarrama,
and the Sierra de Gredos
The highest mountain on the peninsula is Mount Mulhacén, with 3,478 m, located in the Andalusian Sierra Nevada.
Major rivers are the Guadalquivir, the Tejo/Tagus river, the Douro, and the Ebro river.
Cabo da Roca in Portugal is the westernmost point of mainland Europe.
Map of the Iberian Peninsula
Political Map of the Iberian Peninsula
The map shows the Iberian Peninsula and surrounding waters with international borders, the national
capital of Spain and Portugal, major geographical features like rivers and mountain ranges.
You are free to
use the above map for educational purposes (fair use); please refer to the Nations Online Project.
More about the Iberian Peninsula
Major mountain ranges on the Iberian Peninsula
The Cantabrian Mountains are a mountain range in northern Spain. They are the western extension of the Pyrenees and run for 480 km through the autonomous regions of Navarre, Basque Country, Cantabria, Castile-Leon, Asturias, and Galicia. The highest peaks of the Cantabrian Mountains are located in the central Picos de Europa
range, whose highest mountain is the Torre de Cerredo
, at 2648 meters.
North face of Cabezas de Hierro to the southeast of Segovia in the Guadarrama mountain range of the Sistema Central.
The Iberian System is a cluster of high and rugged mountain massifs that forms the eastern edge of the central tableland; it is the main watershed of the Iberian Peninsula between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
The Central System is a mountain system in the center of the Iberian Peninsula. The highest summit of the Sistema Central is Pico Almanzor at 2,592 m. Major mountain ranges within the system are the Sierra de Guadarrama, the Sierra de Gredos in Spain and the Serra da Estrela in Portugal.
Montes de Toledo
The Montes de Toledo is a 350 km long, and on average, about 50 km wide mountain range southwest of the Spanish capital Madrid.
The Sierra Morena is a low mountain range with an average height of 800 to 1000 m.
The Baetic System is a mountain range that stretches 600 km from the Bay of Cadiz in the south of Spain to far beyond Andalusia in the Valencia region.
Fields near Dueñas in Palencia province, Meseta Central of Castile and León.
Image: jacinta lluch valero
The great Central Plateau is a vast elevated area in the interior of the Iberian Peninsula that is surrounded by mountainous massifs, which shape and separate the Meseta from the rest of the territory.
The mountain ranges that border the plateau are (clockwise) the Galician Massif, the Cantabrian Mountains, the Basque Mountains (Montes vascos), the Iberian System, the Betic Systems, and the Sierra Morena. In the center of the Meseta is the Sistema Central mountain range. The plateau covers an area of over 210,000 km² and has an average elevation of 660 m.
The Northern Plateau is the northern part of the Spanish Central Plateau
(Meseta Central), located to the north of the Central system. It covers much of the Duero river basin and the autonomous community of Castile and Leon.
Autonomous Communities of Spain (capital in parentheses)
(Santiago de Compostela); Principality of Asturias
(Oviedo), largest city is Gijón; Cantabria
(Santander); Basque Country
(no official capital), largest city is Bilbao; La Rioja
, (Logroño); Navarre
(Zaragoza or Saragossa); Catalonia
); Valencian Community
(Toledo); Castile and Leon
(Valladolid); Balearic Islands
(Palma de Mallorca); Canary Islands
(Santa Cruz de Tenerife jointly with Las Palmas).
Community of Madrid
). See also Administrative Map of Spain
Regions of Portugal:
Algarve, Alentejo, Lisboa Region,
Centro Region, and Norte Region.
Torre, a peak within the Serra da Estrela
mountain range at 1,993 m (6,539 ft), is the highest point in Mainland Portugal.