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South Africa

Oudekraal Beach and Camps Bay in the Western Cape province
View of Oudekraal Beach and Camps Bay in the Western Cape province with the cloud-covered Twelve Apostles, part of the Table Mountain on the right. The peak in the background is Lions Head; located behind Lions Head is Cape Town.
Image: Gilbert Sopakuwa

Location map of South Africa. Where in Africa is South Africa
Location map of South Africa

Flag of South Africa
Flag of South Africa

South Africa in brief

Destination South Africa, a Nations Online profile of the southernmost country in Africa. The Rainbow Nation borders Botswana, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland and Zimbabwe. The small Kingdom of Lesotho is enclosed as an enclave.

The country covers an area of 1,221,000 km²; compared; it is somewhat larger than two times the size of France, or slightly less than twice the size of the US state of Texas.

South Africa has a population of 60 million people (official estimate 2021). The country's administrative capital is Pretoria (Tshwane), legislative capital is Cape Town and judicial capital is Bloemfontein (Mangaung); the largest city is Johannesburg. South Africa has 11 official languages: Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Northern Sotho, Sotho, Swazi, Tswana, Tsonga, Venda, Xhosa, and Zulu. The most spoken first languages are Zulu (isiZulu - 23%), Xhosa (isiXhosa - 16.0%), and Afrikaans (13.4%).
The most important religions in South Africa are various branches of Christianity (80%).

What is South Africa famous for?

South Africa loves variety; it has three capitals, eleven official languages, 21 National Parks and ten UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
The country is famous for its spectacular landscapes and a diversity of African animals. The Kruger National Park, one of the largest game reserves in Africa, is known for its stunning game viewing opportunities. The park is home to more than 145 mammal species, including the classical African "Big Five": the African buffalo, lions, leopards, elephants, and the hook-lipped rhinoceros (Black Rhino).

The Wild Coast near Coffee Bay in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa
A fisherman on the way to the sea on the Wild Coast near Coffee Bay in South Africa's Eastern Cape Province.
Image: Rodger Bosch

The Cape of Good Hope, the southwesternmost point of Africa, also known as the "Graveyard of Ships," is a prominent headland that sailors once feared because of its cliffs.

The Barberton Greenstone Belt, also known as the Makhonjwa Mountains, contains some of the oldest exposed rocks on Earth, dating back 3.6 billion years.

God's Window, a viewpoint at the edge of the Great Escarpment in Mpumalanga.

Blyde River Canyon is an impressive natural spectacle and a famous nature reserve, popular with tourists.

The Drakensberg (Dragon Mountains) in the border region of South Africa and Lesotho is a hiker's dream come true.

Boulders Beach, the boulder-protected beach on the Cape Peninsula has been home to a colony of African penguins since 1982.

The pristine coastline of the Wild Coast in the Eastern Cape.

The Garden Route, South Africa's scenic road trip along the Indian Ocean coast, from Mossel Bay to Storms River.

Wine - wine production is concentrated in the Cape Town area, with the main vineyards and production centers in Constantia, Paarl, Stellenbosch and Worcester. There are now 18 official wine routes and two brandy routes.

Zulu people, the largest ethnic group and nation in South Africa.

World records
South Africa is the largest producer of platinum. It is home to the largest impact crater on Earth, the Vredefort crater.
South Africa has its own Floral Kingdom (Phytochorion), the Cape Floristic Region is a Biodiversity hotspot and one of the six areas in the world recognized by plant geographers for their distinctive flora.

South Africa | Republic of South Africa

Often called "the Rainbow Nation," South Africa is one of Africa's most ethnically diverse countries. The land was inhabited by pastoral Khoekhoe (Khoi), the hunter-gatherer San, the Xhosa, the Zulu nations, and various other indigenous tribes when Dutch settlers arrived in the middle of the 17th century, much to the disadvantage of the Khoekhoe along the southern and western coastal strips. It was the beginning of a centuries-long aggressive colonial expansion, mainly by settlers of Dutch, German, and French Huguenot origin.
In 1795 the British took over the Cape from the Dutch; seven years later, the colony was returned to the Dutch government, only to come under British rule again in 1806. This circumstance and the rise to power of the Zulu king Shaka forced many Dutch settlers (the Boers) to move north and east to find new land to establish their republics. The discovery of diamonds (1867) and gold (1886) spurred wealth and immigration and intensified the subjugation of the native inhabitants until the end of the 20th century.
The 1990s brought an end to apartheid with South Africa's transition to democracy and Nelson Mandela's inauguration as the country's first democratically elected President in 1994.

Related countries: United Kingdom, Netherlands


Country Profile

Official Name:
Republic of South Africa
short form: South Africa
former: Union of South Africa.

South Africa's name in native (official) languages:
Afrika Borwa (Pedi, seSotho, Tswana)
Afrika Dzonga (Tsonga)
Afurika Tshipembe (Venda)
Mzantsi Afrika (isiXhosa)
Ningizimu Afrika (siSwati, isiZulu)
Suid-Afrika (Afrikaans)

ISO Country Code: za, ZAF

Local Time = UTC +2h
Actual Time: Sat-July-20  18:44

Country Calling Code: +27

Capital Cities:
Pretoria (Tshwane) (administrative center)
Bloemfontein (Mangaung) (judicial center)
Cape Town (legislative center)

Other Cities: Johannesburg, Durban (Thekwini), Nelspruit, Polokwane, Port Elizabeth (Gqeberha) more


Official Sites of South Africa

The seat of the South African government, the Union Buildings in Pretoria
The Union Buildings in Pretoria are the seat of the South African government. The Union Buildings also house the offices of the President of the Republic of South Africa.
Image: Michael Jansen

Political system
South Africa is a constitutional democracy with a three-tier system of government, a legislature, an executive and an independent judiciary. The President is both head of state and head of government. The lower house of parliament, the National Assembly, consists of 400 members and is elected every five years.

Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

South African Government
The official entry point to the Government of South Africa.

President of South Africa
The official website of South Africa's President.

The Parliament of South Africa
The official website of South Africa's Parliament.
Official Gateway to South Africa.

South Africa Government Online
Official South African government gateway.

Department of International Relations and Cooperation, Republic of South Africa
Responsible for all aspects of South Africa's foreign policy.

Diplomatic Missions
Embassy of the Republic of South Africa
Berlin, Germany

Permanent Mission of South Africa to the United Nations
South Africa's Representation to the United Nations.

South African Embassy, Washington DC
The embassy site also provides information about South Africa.

Web sites of SA Missions
Web sites of South Africa's embassies, consulates and high commissions abroad.

Foreign Representation in South Africa
Foreign Diplomatic Missions in South Africa.

Stats SA
Statistics South Africa.

South African Weather Service

More governmental institutions
National Departments of South Africa
List of links to South Africa's National departments and governmental institutions.



Maps from South Africa

South Africa Map
Map of South Africa (click map to enlarge)
Image: ©


profile Map of South Africa
Detailed Map of South Africa.
Map of South Africa Provinces

South Africa's Provinces Map.

Google Earth Google Earth South Africa
Searchable satellite view of South Africa.

Capitals South Africa:
Google Earth Google Earth Pretoria
Searchable satellite view of Pretoria.
Google Earth Google Earth Bloemfontein
Searchable satellite view of Bloemfontein.
Google Earth Google Earth Cape Town
Searchable satellite view of Cape Town.

Political Map of Africa
The 54 countries of Africa.
Map of Africa
A Relief Map of Africa.



News of South Africa

South Africa newspapers

Online News from South Africa

International News sources

Government Communication and Information System
Government-related news, features & information.

Business Day
A national daily newspaper.
Cape Argus
Cape Town's daily; now part of Independent Online (IOL).
Cape Times
English-language morning newspaper, published since 1876 in Cape Town; now part of Independent Online (IOL).
City Press
South African news brand that publishes on multiple platforms, owned by Media24 (Naspers).
Daily Mail & Guardian
National and international news by the South African weekly newspaper and website, published by M&G Media in Johannesburg.
Independent Online
Advertising laden mothership of many of South African newspapers, presently owned by a South Africa-based private equity company.
South African English-language online news publication of the multinational media company Naspers.
Pretoria News
Independent daily newspaper, first published in 1898, Pretoria; now part of Independent Online (IOL).
Times LIVE and Sunday Times
Online versions of the South African weekly newspaper.
The Star
Published in Johannesburg; part of Independent Online (IOL).

Online news from South Africa's national broadcaster.


Arts & Culture of South Africa

Golden objects from the Mapungubwe collection
Gold-plated figurines and objects from the Mapungubwe Collection. made by African artisans from the medieval Ashanti Empire and the Mapungubwe Kingdom.
Image: Cool Art

Arts & Culture


Ditsong National Museum of Natural History
The Ditsong National Museum of Natural History is a museum in the South African capital Pretoria. It is known for its collection of Pliocene and Pleistocene human fossils.

Building of the Zeitz MOCAA - Museum of Contemporary Art Africa.
Building of the Zeitz MOCAA - Museum of Contemporary Art Africa.
Image: Zeitz MOCAA

Amazwi South African Museum of Literature
The Amazwi South African Museum of Literature houses archival material on South Africa's literary heritage. The museum is located in Makhanda (formerly Grahamstown) in South Africa's Eastern Cape province.  

Iziko South African Museum
The South African Museum in Cape Town houses important collections of objects of African zoology, paleontology and archaeology, from rock art and fossils to marine animals and meteorites.

University of Pretoria Museums
The museum is home to a vast art collection and ceramics from southern Africa, including South African sculptures and the iconic Mapungubwe Collection.

Zeitz Museum of Contemporary Art Africa
Zeitz MOCAA is located at the Victoria & Alfred Waterfront in Cape Town; it is the world's largest museum of contemporary African art.

District Six Museum
The District Six Museum in Cape Town is a memorial to the forced movement of 60,000 inhabitants of various races in District Six during Apartheid in South Africa in the 1970s.

Visual Arts

Women and labels by Margaret Njeri Ngigi
Women and labels
Photo courtesy of Margaret Njeri Ngigi

Johannesburg Art Gallery
The city's major public gallery has various art collections, including works from the South African and African art scene of the 21st century on the Friends of JAG page and on JAG at Google:
Johannesburg Art Gallery on Google Arts & Culture.

Gallery Momo

Gallery MOMO is a South African contemporary art gallery representing South African and international artists in its exhibition spaces in Johannesburg and Cape Town.

Tatham Art Gallery
The Tatham Art Gallery is an established art museum with permanent and temporary exhibitions in a historic building.

Goodman Gallery
Goodman Gallery is an international contemporary art gallery with locations in Johannesburg, Cape Town and London.


AfrikaBurn is an official regional Burning Man event that has been held in Quaggafontein in the Tankwa Karoo in South Africa's Northern Cape province since 2007.

Cape Town Carnival
Held annually in March, Cape Town Carnival is a multicultural event with a colorful street parade that showcases and celebrates the diversity of the city and South Africa.

Cape Town Pride
Cape Town's annual gay pride event with a parade.

Cape Town International Jazz Festival
The Cape Town International Jazz Festival is a jazz festival. It was founded as North Sea Jazz Cape Town.

Johannesburg International Mozart Festival
The Johannesburg International Mozart Festival, launched in 2006 to commemorate the 250th anniversary of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's birth, has become a highly successful and popular annual classical music event.

National Arts Festival
The National Arts Festival, formerly the Grahamstown Festival, is the largest performing arts festival in Africa.


Thata Dance with Initiation - National Arts Festival
Is'Thatha Dance Project (Olwethu Sotiya)
Image: National Arts Festival - Photo by Mark Wessels

Artscape Theatre Centre
Artscape Theatre Center is the premier performing arts center in Cape Town, South Africa. It opened in 1971 and is located on reclaimed land in the Foreshore area.

Market Theatre
The Market Theatre is based in the bohemian suburb of Newtown in Johannesburg; it was founded in 1976 and operated as an independent, anti-racist theater during South Africa's apartheid regime.

The South African State Theatre
SAST is situated in the Tshwane (Pretoria) central business district and is one of the largest theaters in Africa.

Cape Town Carnival parade
The Cape Town Carnival is one of Africa's treasures, a melting pot of cultures in a colorful parade with stunning floats and electrifying music.
Image: Max Barners



Business & Economy of South Africa

Johannesburg Central Business District
View of the Central Business District of Johannesburg at night.
Image: Andrew Moore

Economy of South Africa
South Africa has the most industrialized, technologically advanced, and diversified economy in Africa. It is a middle-income emerging market with a rich supply of natural resources, with well-developed financial, legal, communications, energy, and transport sectors. The country's economy is essentially based on private enterprise. But South Africa's levels of unemployment, poverty and inequality are among the highest in the world, and it is also the country with the widest gap between rich and poor.

South African Reserve Bank (SARB)
The SARB, headquartered in Pretoria, is the private central bank of South Africa. It was founded in 1921 and is the oldest central bank in Africa.

Johannesburg Stock Exchange JSE
JSE Limited, based in Sandton, Gauteng, is Africa's oldest and largest stock exchange.

South Africa's Chambers of Commerce and Industry
South African Chamber of Commerce and Industry (SACCI)
SACCI is the head organization for almost 50 constituent chambers in South Africa; it is headquartered in Johannesburg.
Cape Chamber of Commerce & Industry
Cape Chamber of Commerce and Industry is the oldest member-based business organization in Africa, established in 1804.
Johannesburg Chamber of Commerce and Industry
Johannesburg-based business network.

South Africa's Major Companies
Banks and mobile telecommunication companies are among the top brands in South Africa.

Eskom is a state-run power company.
South African Coal Oil and Gas Corporation is an energy and chemical company based in Johannesburg; it is the world’s first – and largest – oil-from-coal refinery.

South Africa's Big 4

Standard Bank
Standard Bank Group, with its headquarters in Johannesburg, is one of South Africa's largest financial services groups with activities in 20 African countries and other key markets worldwide.
First National Bank (FNB)
First National Bank, a division of FirstRand Limited, one of the largest financial institutions in South Africa, operating in nine key African countries.
Absa Group
Absa Group Limited (formerly Barclays Africa Group Limited) is a South African financial services group.
One of South Africa's "big four" banks, originally founded in 1888 in Amsterdam, Netherlands, as 'Nederlandsche Bank voor Zuid-Afrika.'

Food & Retail
Canal Walk foodcourt in Cape Town
Canal Walk food court in Cape Town.
Image: Gilbert Sopakuwa

The Bidcorp Group is a Johannesburg-based broad-line food service company.
RCL Foods
The South African consumer goods and milling company was founded as Rainbow Chicken Ltd in 1960.
Shoprite Holdings
South African supermarket retailer with 2400 corporate stores and 513 franchise stores.
The e-commerce company based in Cape Town is the country's largest online retailer.
One of South Africa's largest retail chains, not affiliated with the Australian supermarket chain Woolworths.

Media and Internet
Independent Online
IOL is a news and information company that provides online versions of several South African newspapers, including The Star, Pretoria News, The Daily Voice, Cape Times, Cape Argus and others.

Naspers is a multinational holding company headquartered in Cape Town, active in publishing, online retailing and venture capital investment in internet technology with stakes in stake in Prosus and wholly owns Media24, Africa's largest publishing company.

Satellite view of Sishen iron-ore mine in South Africa
The Sishen iron-ore mine in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa.
Image: ESRI, Maxar

Anglo American
Anglo American is a multinational mining company founded in Johannesburg in 1917; it is the world's largest platinum producer and is now headquartered in London, England. The company owns the De Beers Group, a diamond mining company founded by Cecil Rhodes, the founder of the British South Africa Company.

AngloGold Ashanti
AngloGold Ashanti Limited is a global gold mining company based in Johannesburg.

Gold Fields
Gold Fields is a global gold producer with nine operating mines in Australia, Peru, South Africa and West Africa (including the Asanko Gold Mine joint venture).

Impala Platinum
The South African mining group is based in Illovo, Gauteng. The company primarily mines platinum and palladium, but also rhodium and nickel.

Kumba Iron Ore
Iron ore mining company owned by Anglo American that operates the Sishen mine near Kathu in the Northern Cape province.

MTN Group, headquartered in Johannesburg, is a multinational mobile telecommunications company operating in many African, European and Asian countries.
Vodacom Group Limited is a South African mobile communications company.
Cell C
Cell C Ltd is a South African mobile company headquartered in Randburg (Johannesburg).

More companies of South Africa.
Wikipedia W List of companies of South Africa
Wikipedia's list of companies of South Africa.

South African Airways
SAA is the state-owned flag carrier airline.
Airlink is a private airline that serves a number of destinations in southern Africa.
Comair operates scheduled flights and the low-cost airline with routes in southern Africa.

Blue Train
Travel in style. South African luxury train running between Pretoria and Cape Town.

Rovos Rail
Travel in even more style. Rovos Rail connects some of the continent's most beautiful destinations with a variety of off-train excursions.

Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa
PRASA is a state-owned company responsible for most passenger transport services in South Africa.

Transnet is a government-owned company responsible for the operation of railroads, ports and pipelines.

South African Railways
Private South African Railways Info page.

View over the Port of Cape Town
View over the Port of Cape Town. South Africa's second-busiest port after Durban Harbour.
Image: Sky Pixels



Tourism in South Africa

Victoria & Alfred Waterfront and Table Mountain in the background
The Victoria & Alfred Waterfront in Cape Town with the famous Table Mountain in the background. The historic port of Cape Town is one of the most visited destinations in South Africa.
Image: slack12

Destination South Africa - Travel and Tour Guides


South African Tourism
The South Africa Tourism Board, the official tourism website for South Africa.

Department of Tourism
The official website of the Tourism Ministry of South Africa.

SA Places
A tourism guide to Africa's South.

Wikivoyage Logo Wikivoyage: South Africa

Cape Town Travel
Official Cape Town tourism website.

Travel to Durban
Official tourism website of Durban.

Nelson Mandela Bay Tourism
Official Tourism Information for Gqeberha (Port Elizabeth), Nelson Mandela Bay.

Visit Tshwane (Pretoria)
The administrative capital of South Africa.

The Garden Route
Business and travel in Western Cape province.
Comprehensive information about the Overberg region on the Southernmost tip of Africa.

Official city websites
Mangaung Metropolitan Municipality, South Africa's judicial center.

Cape Town
The City of Cape Town.

Durban (Thekwini)
eThekwini Municipality, the official website of Durban.

The official City of Jo'burg website.

Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality
Gqeberha (Port Elizabeth) official website.

Tshwane (Pretoria)
The City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality.

South Africa's Provinces
A guide to South Africa's Provinces.

Wildebeest in Kruger National Park
A herd of wildebeest (or Gnus) in Kruger National Park. The game reserve was founded by President Kruger in 1898 and is now one of South Africa's most popular destinations.
Image: Charl Durand



UNESCO World Heritage Sites

Mapungubwe Hill in Mapungubwe National Park
Morning at Mapungubwe Hill. The area is a Unesco World Heritage Site due to the archaeological treasures of the ancient civilization of Mapungubwe Hill.
Image: Malcolm Manners

UNESCO World Heritage Sites in South Africa
There are ten UNESCO World Heritage Sites in South Africa, five cultural and four natural sites, plus one mixed. Additionally, five properties are listed in UNESCO's Tentative List, an inventory of those properties which each state party intends to consider for nomination. (see the List of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in South Africa).

The following links lead to a detailed description of the respective World Heritage Site at UNESCO.

World Heritage Site Cape Floral Region Protected Areas
The territory of the Cape Floral Region is one of the most important areas of plant biodiversity on our planet, encompassing national parks, nature reserves, wilderness areas, state forests and mountainous watersheds.

World Heritage Site Fossil Hominid
The Taung Skull Fossil Site, part of the extension to the site inscribed in 1999, is the place where in 1924 the celebrated Taung Skull – a specimen of the species Australopithecus africanus – was found. Makapan Valley, also in the site, features in its many archaeological caves traces of human occupation and evolution dating back some 3.3 million years.

World Heritage Site Richtersveld Cultural and Botanical Landscape
The 160,000 ha Richtersveld Cultural and Botanical Landscape of dramatic mountainous desert in north-western South Africa constitutes a cultural landscape communally owned and managed.

World Heritage Site Robben Island
Robben Island, the small island off the coast of South Africa, near Cape Town, was used at various times between the 17th and 20th centuries as a prison, a hospital for socially unacceptable groups and a military base. It is the site of the former maximum-security prison used to detain political prisoners, including Nelson Mandela.

Hiking trail in the Cathedral Peak area in the uKhahlamba Drakensberg National Park
Hiking trail in the Cathedral Peak area in the uKhahlamba Drakensberg National Park. The Maloti-Drakensberg Park is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Image: Jono Hey


Education in South Africa

University of Cape Town building
The University of Cape Town, founded in 1829, is South Africa's oldest university. It is located on the flanks of one of the peaks of the Table Mountain massif, Devil's Peak.
Image: Stewart Harris

National Department of Basic Education
Official website of the Ministry of Education in South Africa.

University of Fort Hare
The oldest historically black university in Southern and Eastern Africa, founded in 1916.

University of KwaZulu-Nata
The University of KwaZulu-Natal is a university in the province of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. It was established in 2004 by the merger of KwaZulu-Natal's two largest educational institutions, the University of Natal (founded in 1910) and the University of Durban-Westville.

University of Pretoria
The University of Pretoria, UP or Tuks for short, is a state university in the South African city of Pretoria.

University of South Africa
The University of South Africa (UNISA), known colloquially as Unisa, is the largest university system in South Africa by enrollment. It attracts a third of all higher education students in South Africa. Through various colleges and affiliates, UNISA has over 400,000 students, including international students from 130 countries worldwide, making it one of the world's mega universities and the only such university in Africa.

University of the Witwatersrand
Wits is a South African university located in Johannesburg in the province of Gauteng. Wits grew out of the South African School of Mines, which opened in 1896. In 1922, it was granted university status and adopted its current name. During the apartheid era, only a few black students were allowed to enroll here. Nevertheless, some well-known anti-apartheid leaders studied here.

More South African Universities will be found in the
Guide to South Africa's Provinces


Environment & Nature

Cape Agulhas, the southernmost point of the African continent
Cape Agulhas with the lighthouse. The cape is a rocky headland in Western Cape province and the southernmost point of the African continent. Near Cape Agulhas, at 20th meridian east, begins the geographical dividing line between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.

Environmental Organizations
Department of Environmental Affairs
The official website of the Environment Department South Africa.

Department of Mineral resources & Energy
The official website of the Department of Mineral resources & Energy.

South African National Parks
Official website of the South African National Parks (SANParks)

Centre for Environmental Rights
The Centre for Environmental Rights is a non-profit organization and law firm. It consists of a group of activist lawyers who assist South African communities and civil society organizations in realizing the constitutional right to a healthy environment by advocating and litigating for environmental justice.

Natural Justice: Lawyers for Communities and the Environment
Lawyers for Communities and the Environment is a non-profit organization based in Cape Town, South Africa, with additional offices in Malaysia, India, and New York City. It takes its name from the legal principle of natural justice, and it works at the local level to legally empower communities to pursue social and environmental justice.

Protect The West Coast
Organization that seeks to protect the West Coast from land grabs and environmental destruction by multinational mining companies.

National Parks

Kruger National Park
A comprehensive guide to one of Africa's most famous game and wildlife reserves.

Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, located 280 km north of Durban, is one of the oldest game reserves in Africa.

Offical website of the Pilanesberg-Nationalpark.

Table Mountain National Park
Table Mountain National Park is a national park in the Western Cape province of South Africa and a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Spring flower bloom in Skilpad Wildflower Reserve, Namaqua National Park
Spring flower bloom in Skilpad Wildflower Reserve, Namaqua National Park.
Image: Malcolm Manners


South Africa History

Painting of the arrival of Jan van Riebeeck in Table Bay in April 1652
The arrival of Jan van Riebeeck (who founded Cape Town) in Table Bay in April 1652. Riebeeck's landing established the VOC Cape Colony, the first permanent European settlement in South Africa and the very beginning of the colonization of the continent by European powers. The flag in the painting is the flag of the Dutch Republic (1588–1795).
Painting: Charles Davidson Bell (1813 – 1882)

People who shaped South Africa's History:
Jan van Riebeeck, Paul Kruger, Daniel François Malan, Oliver Tambo, Hendrik Verwoerd, Steve Biko, P. W. Botha, F. W. de Klerk, Joe Slovo, Chris Hani, Winnie Mandela, Eugene Terreblanche, Mangosuthu Buthelezi, Nelson Mandela, Desmond Tutu.

South Africa History
History of South Africa by the Government of South Africa.

South African History Online
A whole website that describes the History of South Africa.

Wikipedia W History of South Africa
Wikipedia article about the history of South Africa.

BBC-logo South Africa profile - Timeline
Timeline of South Africa's History by the BBC.

The Colonisation of South Africa: A unique case
A concise article about the colonization of South Africa.

Read more in History of South Africa from the European Arrival until the Republic of South Africa.



Indigenous People of South Africa

Dancing around fire. South Africa's ǂKhomani People
Dancing around the fire. The ǂKhomani Cultural Landscape is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Image: © Francois Odendaal Productions

The first known human inhabitants of what is now South Africa were the hunter-gatherers of the Khoisan and the pastoralist peoples of the Khoekhoe, but they were largely displaced in the fourth or fifth century by the Bantu peoples who migrated south. Some Khoisan intermarried with the Bantu peoples, especially the Xhosa, whose language is still influenced by them.

South Africa has voted in favor of adopting the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples but has yet to ratify the ILO Convention No. 169. The indigenous San and Khoekhoe of South Africa were formerly referred to as "colored people." Now they are exercising their right to self-identification and identify themselves as San and Khoekhoe or Khoe-San.

Indigenous groups make up an estimated 1% of South Africa's total population of about 50 million. [IWGIA]

Indigenous peoples in South Africa
Article about indigenous peoples in South Africa from IWGIA
Everything you must know about the Khoisan People.

‡Khomani San
The ‡Khomani are the last surviving indigenous San community in South Africa.


Additional Information

Selected country profiles of South Africa published by international organizations.


Amnesty International: South Africa
Amnesty International is a non-governmental organization focused on human rights.

BBC Country Profile: South Africa
Country profiles by the British public service broadcaster.

BTI Transformation Index South Africa
South Africa Country Report 2020 by Bertelsmann Stiftung.

FAO: South Africa
UN Food and Agriculture Organization.

Freedom House: South Africa
The U.S. government-funded non-profit organization whose goal is to promote liberal democracies worldwide.

GlobalEDGE: South Africa
South Africa ranking by the Global business knowledge portal.

The Heritage Foundation: South Africa
Index of Economic Freedom by The Heritage Foundation, an American conservative think tank.

Human Rights Watch: South Africa
HRW conducts research and advocacy on human rights.

OEC: South Africa
The Observatory of Economic Complexity provides the latest international trade data.

Reporters Without Borders: South Africa
RSF (Reporters sans frontières) is an international NGO that defends and promotes media freedom.

Wikipedia: South Africa
Wikipedia's South Africa page in many languages.

World Bank Data: South Africa
World Development Indicators database.

The CIA World Factbook -- South Africa
CIA World Factbook South Africa Page.


Other Countries of Southern Africa:
Botswana | Lesotho | Namibia | Swaziland

Maps of other Countries of Southern Africa:
Botswana Map | Namibia Map | Swaziland Map